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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from           to         

Commission file number 001-38150

KALA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

27-0604595

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification No.)

1167 Massachusetts Avenue

Arlington, MA

02476

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

(781) 996-5252

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share

KALA

The Nasdaq Capital Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

Smaller reporting company  

Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. 

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No  

As of June 30, 2022, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the Common Stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $20.2 million, based on the closing price of the registrant’s common stock on June 30, 2022.

There were 2,025,495 shares of Common Stock ($0.001 par value) outstanding as of March 2, 2023.

Table of Contents

    

Page

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements and Industry Data

3

Risk Factor Summary

5

PART I

Item 1.

Business

7

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

45

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

94

Item 2.

Properties

94

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

94

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

94

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

95

Item 6.

[Reserved]

96

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

96

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

114

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

114

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

114

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

114

Item 9B.

Other Information

116

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

116

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

116

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

121

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

138

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

142

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

147

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

148

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

150

Signatures

151

References to Kala

Throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the “Company,” “Kala”, “Kala Pharmaceuticals,” “we,” “us,” and “our,” except where the context requires otherwise, refer to Kala Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, and “our board of directors” refers to the board of directors of Kala Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Special Note

On October 20, 2022, we effected a 1-for-50 reverse stock split of our common stock either issued and outstanding or held as treasury stock. As a result of the reverse stock split, every 50 shares of issued and outstanding common stock were automatically combined into one issued and outstanding share of common stock, without any change in the par value per share. No fractional shares were issued as a result of the reverse stock split. Any fractional shares that would otherwise have resulted from the reverse stock split were rounded up to the next whole number. Unless otherwise indicated, all historical share and per share amounts in this Annual Report on Form 10-K have been adjusted to reflect the reverse stock split. Proportionate adjustments were made to the per share exercise price and the number of shares of common stock that may be purchased upon exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants, and the number of shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2017 Equity Incentive Plan, as amended, and Employee Stock Purchase Plan.

2

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND INDUSTRY DATA

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenue, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “would” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

The forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K include, among other things, statements about:

our expectations with respect to the potential impacts the sale of our commercial business to Alcon Pharmaceuticals Ltd. and Alcon Vision, LLC, which we refer collectively as Alcon, will have on our business, results of operations and financial condition;
our expectations with respect to, and the amount of, future milestone payments we may receive from Alcon in connection with the sale of our commercial business;
our expectations with respect to our dependency on and potential advantages of KPI-012, our product candidate for the treatment of persistent corneal epithelial defects, or PCED;
our expectations with respect to the potential financial impact, synergies, growth prospects and benefits of our acquisition of Combangio, Inc., or Combangio, or the Combangio Acquisition, including our expectations with respect to, and the amount of, future milestone payments we may pay in connection with the Combangio Acquisition;
our development efforts for KPI-012 and our ability to discover and develop new programs and product candidates;
the timing, progress and results of clinical trials for KPI-012, including statements regarding the timing of initiation and completion of clinical trials, dosing of subjects and the period during which the results of the trials will become available;
the timing, scope and likelihood of regulatory filings, including the filing of any biologics license applications for KPI-012 and any other product candidate we may develop in the future;
our ability to obtain regulatory approvals for KPI-012;
our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy for KPI-012, if approved;
our estimates regarding potential future revenue from sales of KPI-012, if approved;
our ability to negotiate, secure and maintain adequate pricing, coverage and reimbursement terms and processes on a timely basis, or at all, with third-party payors for KPI-012, if approved;
the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of KPI-012 and our estimates regarding the market opportunity for KPI-012, if approved;
plans to pursue the development of KPI-012 for indications in addition to PCED;
our expectations with respect to our determination to cease the development of our preclinical pipeline programs that are unrelated to our mesenchymal stem cell secretome, or MSC-S, platform, including the development of KPI-287, our receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and our selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators;
the timing, progress and results of preclinical studies for our KPI-014 program;

3

our expectations regarding our ability to fund our operating expenses, debt service obligations, and capital expenditure requirements with our cash on hand;
our expectations regarding our ability to comply with the covenants under our loan agreement;
our intellectual property position, including intellectual property acquired in the Combangio Acquisition;
our ability to identify additional products, product candidates or technologies with significant commercial potential that are consistent with our commercial objectives;
our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, timing of any future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;
the impact of government laws and regulations;
our competitive position;
developments relating to our competitors and our industry;
our ability to maintain and establish collaborations or obtain additional funding;
our business and business relationships, including with employees and suppliers;
our anticipated annualized reduction in operating expenses associated with our workforce reduction announced in July 2022; and
the impact of COVID-19 on our business and operations.

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. We have included important factors in the cautionary statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, particularly in the “Risk Factors” section, that we believe could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.

You should read this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the documents that we reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and have filed as exhibits to this Annual Report on Form 10-K completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. The forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are made as of the date of filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and we do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements except as required by applicable law.

This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes statistical and other industry and market data that we obtained from industry publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by us and third parties as well as our estimates of potential market opportunities. Industry publications and third-party research, surveys and studies generally indicate that their information has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, although they do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of such information. Our estimates of the potential market opportunity for KPI-012 include several key assumptions based on our industry knowledge, industry publications, third-party research and other surveys, which may be based on a small sample size and may fail to accurately reflect market opportunities. While we believe that our internal assumptions are reasonable, no independent source has verified such assumptions.

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Risk Factor Summary

Our business is subject to a number of risks that if realized could materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and access to liquidity. These risks are discussed more fully in the “Risk Factors” section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our principal risks include the following:

We have incurred significant losses from operations and negative cash flows from operations since our inception. We expect to incur additional losses and may never achieve or maintain profitability. As of December 31, 2022, we had an accumulated deficit of $587.2 million.
Our limited operating history and our limited experience in developing biologics may make it difficult for you to evaluate the success of our business to date and to assess our future viability.
We will need substantial additional funding. If we are unable to raise capital when needed, we could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our product development efforts.
Our substantial indebtedness may limit cash flow available to invest in the ongoing needs of our business, and a failure to comply with the covenants under our loan agreement, such as the requirement that our common stock continue to be listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market, could result in an event of default and acceleration of amounts due.
The milestone consideration we are eligible to receive in connection with the sale of our commercial business to Alcon is subject to various risks and uncertainties.
If we are unable to successfully complete the clinical development of, and obtain marketing approval for, KPI-012 or any other product candidate we may develop in the future, or experience significant delays in doing so, or if, after obtaining marketing approvals, we fail to successfully commercialize such product candidates, our business will be materially harmed.
If clinical trials of KPI-012 or any other product candidate that we develop fail to demonstrate potency, safety and purity to the satisfaction of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, or other regulatory authorities or do not otherwise produce favorable results, we may incur additional costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of such product candidate. The outcome of preclinical testing and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later stage clinical trials, and interim results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results.
If we experience any of a number of possible unforeseen events in connection with our clinical trials, potential marketing approval or commercialization of our product candidates could be delayed or prevented, and our competitors could bring products to market before we do.
We may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular product candidate or indication and fail to capitalize on product candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.
KPI-012 has been evaluated in a clinical trial outside of the United States, and we may in the future conduct clinical trials for product candidates at sites outside the United States. The FDA may not accept data from trials conducted in such locations.
The ongoing coronavirus pandemic and the efforts to prevent its spread have adversely impacted our operations, could impact the development of KPI-012 or any other product candidate we develop, and may continue to adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Even if KPI-012 or any other product candidates that we may develop in the future receives marketing approval, such products may fail to achieve market acceptance by clinicians and patients, or adequate formulary coverage, pricing or reimbursement by third-party payors and others in the medical community, and the market opportunity for these products may be smaller than we estimate.

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If we are unable to establish and maintain sales, marketing and distribution capabilities or enter into sales, marketing and distribution agreements with third parties, if and when necessary, we may not be successful in commercializing KPI-012 or any other product candidate that we may develop if and when they are approved.
We face substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products before or more successfully than we do. Our competitors include major pharmaceutical companies with significantly greater financial resources. KPI-012 and any other product candidate we may develop, if approved, may also compete with existing branded, generic and off-label products.
We have relied, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties to conduct our clinical trials, and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily, including failing to meet deadlines for the completion of such trials.
We contract with third parties for the manufacture of KPI-012 and plan to contract with third parties for preclinical, clinical and commercial supply of any other product candidates we develop. This reliance on third parties increases the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of our product candidates or such quantities at an acceptable cost, which could delay, prevent or impair our development or commercialization efforts.
The manufacture of biologics is complex and our third-party manufacturers may encounter difficulties in production. If any of our third-party manufacturers encounter such difficulties, our ability to provide supply of product candidates for clinical trials or products for patients, if approved, could be delayed or prevented.
We may be unable to obtain and maintain patent protection for our technology or product candidates, or the scope of the patent protection obtained may not be sufficiently broad or enforceable, such that our competitors could develop and commercialize technology, products and product candidates similar or identical to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize our technology product candidates may be impaired.
KPI-012 is protected by patent rights exclusively licensed from other companies or institutions. If these third parties terminate their agreements with us or fail to maintain or enforce the underlying patents, or we otherwise lose our rights to these patents, our competitive position and our market share in the markets for any of our products, if and when approved, will be harmed.

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Part I

Item 1.       Business

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company dedicated to the research, development and commercialization of innovative therapies for rare and severe diseases of the eye. Our product candidate, KPI-012, which we acquired from Combangio, Inc., or Combangio, on November 15, 2021, is a mesenchymal stem cell secretome, or MSC-S, and is currently in clinical development for the treatment of persistent corneal epithelial defects, or PCED, a rare disease of impaired corneal healing. Based on the positive results of a Phase 1b clinical safety and efficacy trial of KPI-012 in patients with PCED, along with favorable preclinical safety and efficacy results, we submitted an investigational new drug application, or IND, to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, which was accepted in December 2022. In February 2023, we dosed our first patient in our CHASE (Corneal Healing After SEcretome therapy) Phase 2b clinical trial of KPI-012 for PCED in the United States, and we are targeting reporting top-line safety and efficacy data from this trial in the first quarter of 2024. If the results of the CHASE Phase 2b clinical trial are positive, and subject to discussion with regulatory authorities, we believe this trial could serve as the first of two pivotal trials required to support the submission of a Biologics License Application, or BLA, to the FDA.

We believe the multifactorial mechanism of action of KPI-012 also makes MSC-S a platform technology. We are evaluating the potential development of KPI-012 for additional rare front-of-the-eye diseases, such as for the treatment of Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency and ocular manifestations of moderate-to-severe Sjögren’s. In addition, we have initiated preclinical studies under our KPI-014 program to evaluate the utility of our MSC-S platform for inherited retinal degenerative diseases, such as Retinitis Pigmentosa and Stargardt Disease. In connection with the determination to focus our research and development efforts on KPI-012, in 2022, we determined to cease the development of our preclinical pipeline programs that are unrelated to our MSC-S platform. We expect to commercialize in the United States any of our product candidates that receive marketing approval.

We previously developed and commercialized two marketed products, EYSUVIS® (loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic suspension) 0.25%, for the short-term (up to two weeks) treatment of the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease, and INVELTYS® (loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic suspension) 1%, a topical twice-a-day ocular steroid for the treatment of post-operative inflammation and pain following ocular surgery. Both products applied a proprietary mucus-penetrating particle drug delivery technology, which we referred to as the AMPPLIFY® Drug Delivery Technology.

On July 8, 2022, we closed the transaction, or the Alcon Transaction, contemplated by the asset purchase agreement, dated as of May 21, 2022, or the Asset Purchase Agreement, by and between us, Alcon Pharmaceuticals Ltd. and Alcon Vision, LLC, which we refer to collectively as Alcon, pursuant to which Alcon purchased the rights to manufacture, sell, distribute, market and commercialize EYSUVIS and INVELTYS and to develop, manufacture, market and otherwise exploit the AMPPLIFY Drug Delivery Technology, which we collectively refer to as the Commercial Business. Alcon also assumed certain liabilities with respect to the Commercial Business at the closing of the Alcon Transaction.

Alcon paid us an upfront cash payment of $60.0 million upon the closing of the Alcon Transaction. Pursuant to the Asset Purchase Agreement, we are also eligible to receive from Alcon up to four commercial-based sales milestone payments as follows: (1) $25.0 million upon the achievement of $50.0 million or more in aggregate worldwide net sales of EYSUVIS and INVELTYS in a calendar year from 2023 to 2028, (2) $65.0 million upon the achievement of $100.0 million or more in aggregate worldwide net sales of EYSUVIS and INVELTYS in a calendar year from 2023 to 2028, (3) $75.0 million upon the achievement of $175.0 million or more in aggregate worldwide net sales of EYSUVIS and INVELTYS in a calendar year from 2023 to 2029 and (4) $160.0 million upon the achievement of $250.0 million or more in aggregate worldwide net sales of EYSUVIS and INVELTYS in a calendar year from 2023 to 2029. Each milestone payment will only become payable once, if at all, upon the first time such milestone is achieved, and only one milestone payment will be paid with respect to a calendar year. In the event that more than one milestone is achieved in a calendar year, the higher milestone payment will become payable and the lower milestone payment will become payable only if the corresponding milestone is achieved again in a subsequent calendar year. To date, we have not received any milestone payments pursuant to the Asset Purchase Agreement.

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On July 8, 2022, we announced that we had committed to a course of action to terminate 113 employees, consisting of our entire commercial sales force and certain employees in our commercial, scientific, manufacturing, finance and administrative functions. The determination to proceed with the workforce reduction was made in the context of the closing of the Alcon Transaction and the changes to the scope of our research and development activities of KPI-012 as more fully described above. The workforce reduction was completed by the end of 2022.

The following table describes the stage of each of our development programs:

Graphic

We have retained worldwide commercial rights for our MSC-S platform, including KPI-012 and KPI-014. We own and/or exclusively license patents relating to this platform, including U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications. The expiration dates of the issued U.S. patents that we control covering KPI-012 are scheduled to expire no earlier than 2040, and a portfolio of additional U.S. and ex-U.S. patent applications covering the MSC-S platform is currently in prosecution.

Strategy

Our goal is to become a leading biopharmaceutical company dedicated to the research, development and commercialization of innovative therapies for rare and severe diseases of the front and back of the eye. Key elements of our strategy include:

Advance the clinical development of, and seek regulatory approval for, KPI-012 for the treatment of PCED. KPI-012 is a novel, human bone-marrow derived MSC-S currently in clinical development for the treatment of PCED. A PCED is a persistent non-healing corneal defect or wound that is refractory to conventional treatments. Based on the positive results of a Phase 1b clinical safety and efficacy trial of KPI-012 in patients with PCED, along with favorable preclinical safety and efficacy results, we submitted an IND to the FDA, which was accepted in December 2022. In February 2023, we dosed our first patient in the CHASE Phase 2b clinical trial of KPI-012 for PCED in the United States. If the results of the CHASE Phase 2b clinical trial are positive, and subject to discussions with regulatory authorities, we believe this trial could serve as the first of two pivotal trials required to support the submission of a BLA to the FDA. If approved, we intend to commercialize KPI-012 with a small, targeted, internal sales force in the United States. We also expect to explore commercialization of KPI-012 for the treatment of PCED in certain markets outside the United States utilizing a variety of collaboration, distribution, co-promotion and other marketing arrangements with one or more third parties.
Advance KPI-012 for additional rare ocular surface disease indications and KPI-014 for rare inherited retinal diseases. We are also evaluating the potential of KPI-012 to treat other rare front-of-the-eye diseases, such as Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency and ocular manifestations of moderate-to-severe Sjögren’s. In addition, we have initiated preclinical studies of KPI-014, our preclinical program evaluating the utility of our MSC-S platform for inherited retinal degenerative diseases, such as Retinitis Pigmentosa and Stargardt Disease.

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Business development through selective transactions. We plan to pursue value-driven business development opportunities as they arise in order to enhance our business and product pipeline, which may include opportunistically in-licensing or acquiring the rights to complementary products, product candidates and technologies, particularly for the treatment of rare ophthalmic diseases. We also plan to explore a variety of transactions to maximize the value of our assets, including out-licensing transactions, collaborations, distributions and other development and marketing arrangements with one or more third parties for our product candidates.

Our Clinical-Stage Product Candidate

KPI-012 for Persistent Corneal Epithelial Defects

Persistent Corneal Epithelial Defects Overview

PCED is a persistent non-healing corneal defect or wound that is refractory to conventional treatments. PCED is a disease of impaired corneal healing and can be the result of numerous etiologies, including (but not limited to) neurotrophic keratitis, or NK, microbial/viral keratitis, surgical epithelial debridement, corneal transplant surgery, limbal stem cell deficiency, mechanical/thermal trauma and exposure keratopathy. Normal healing is a highly regulated multifactorial process that involves numerous biologic pathways and molecules, including growth factors, cell signaling, proliferation, migration and extracellular matrix remodeling. In PCED, the normal healing process is impaired due to an imbalance of the key biomolecules that orchestrate the normal wound healing process. We believe that effective treatment of PCED across the various etiologies requires a multifactorial mechanism of action to address the impaired healing that is responsible for the defects.

PCED is a rare disease with an estimated incidence of 100,000 cases per year in the United States and 238,000 cases per year in the United States, European Union and Japan combined. Clinical symptoms of PCED include pain, foreign body sensation, redness, photophobia and tearing. Clinical signs include non-healing epithelial defects, stromal scarring and stomal thinning. A PCED may lead to infection, corneal ulceration, corneal perforation, scarring, opacification and significant vision loss.

Limitations of Existing Treatments for Persistent Corneal Epithelial Defects

There is currently a significant unmet need for therapies to effectively treat PCED. Conventional therapies, which include bandage contact lenses, autologous serum and surgery, are usually ineffective in overcoming the dysregulation present in multiple cellular pathways that may need to be addressed to heal a PCED. Surgical procedures used in the treatment of PCED include tarsorrhaphy, corneal epithelial stem cell transplants and corneal transplants which are used to aid in restoration and maintenance of vision capabilities.

The only currently approved prescription product in the PCED space is Oxervate®, indicated for the treatment of NK, which we believe to be the primary etiology for approximately one-third of PCED cases. Oxervate contains a single growth factor – nerve growth factor (NGF) – and has been demonstrated to be effective in only the subgroup of PCED cases whose underlying etiology is neurotrophic disease. Oxervate is a topical eye drop that is administered six times per day at two-hour intervals for eight weeks. Each administration of Oxervate requires the use of a vial containing the drug product, a vial adapter, a single-use pipette and disinfectant wipes.

KPI-012 Opportunity in Persistent Corneal Epithelial Defects

KPI-012 is a novel, human bone-marrow derived MSC secretome composed of biologically active components secreted from the MSCs, such as growth factors, protease inhibitors, matrix proteins and neurotropic factors, that have been shown in preclinical studies by Combangio to facilitate corneal healing. KPI-012 is cell-free and produced from a proprietary cell bank. The drug substance for KPI-012 is produced as a chemically-defined cell-free solution followed by formulation and filling of the drug product in non-preserved single dose units. We believe that KPI-012’s multi-factorial mechanism of action has the potential to normalize the impaired healing in PCED and other severe ocular surface diseases driven by impaired healing. As such, we believe KPI-012 offers a potentially promising approach for the treatment of PCED and other ocular surface diseases across multiple etiologies. Key biological factors contained in KPI-012 and their potential wound healing functions are shown below:

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Key KPI-012 Components

Ocular Surface Wound-Healing Function

Protease Inhibitors

(TIMP-1, TIMP-2, Serpin E)

Inhibit destructive proteases that degrade matrix in the wound bed

Matrix Proteins

(Fibronectin)

Build a molecular scaffold in the wound bed for cells to migrate and adhere to

Growth Factors

(HGF)

Suppress inflammation and promote corneal epithelium repair

Neurotrophic Factors

(PEDF)

Promote maintenance of neurons to support corneal health

The multifactorial mechanism of action of KPI-012 is thought to be responsible for the significant wound healing activity observed in Combangio’s preclinical animal models and in the completed Phase 1b clinical trial. KPI-012 has received orphan drug designation from the FDA for the treatment of PCED.

Clinical Development Plan of KPI-012

We are initially developing KPI-012 for the treatment of PCED. Combangio completed a Phase 1b clinical efficacy trial in nine patients with PCED in Mexico City, Mexico. Based on the results of this Phase 1b clinical trial, we initiated a full preclinical development program and submitted an IND application to the FDA for KPI-012, which was accepted in December 2022.

In February 2023, we dosed our first patient in the CHASE Phase 2b clinical trial of KPI-012. The trial includes two patient cohorts, with the initial cohort involving an open label evaluation in two PCED patients to establish safety of the high dose KPI-012 (3 U/ml given QID) to be administered in the study. If no dose-limiting toxicity is observed after one week of dosing in these two patients, then the second cohort of approximately 90 patients will be initiated as a multicenter, randomized, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group trial in PCED patients with varying underlying etiologies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of two doses of KPI-012 ophthalmic solution (1 U/ml and 3 U/ml) compared to vehicle when dosed topically four times per day for 56 days. The trial will have an 8-week treatment period with evaluations at frequent times during the dosing period and at 10 weeks and 26 weeks.

The trial is expected to enroll approximately 90 adult patients with PCED, and the primary endpoint of the trial will be complete healing of the PCED at Week 8 as measured by corneal fluorescein staining using a central-reading center assessment of corneal fluorescing staining photographs. We are targeting reporting top-line safety and efficacy data from the CHASE Phase 2b clinical trial in the first quarter of 2024. If the results are positive, and subject to discussions with regulatory authorities, we believe this trial can serve as the first of two pivotal trials required to support the submission of a BLA to the FDA.

Phase 1b Clinical Trial Results of KPI-012

Combangio conducted a Phase 1b clinical trial of KPI-012 in Mexico City, Mexico during 2020 and 2021, one in three subjects without active corneal disease who were dosed twice a day (1 U/mL) for one week and another in nine patients with PCED, or the PCED cohort, who were dosed twice a day (1 U/mL) for up to eight weeks. Key inclusion criteria for the PCED cohort included:

Subjects with PCED of at least 10 days without improvement from one or more conventional non-surgical treatments in study eye due to any of the following:
-NK, provided there was no active herpetic infection of the eye in the prior three months
-Corneal Burns (alkali, acid and thermal)

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-Post-photorefractive Keratectomy
-Post-corneal Transplant Surgery
-Corneal epithelial debridement resulting from Diabetic Vitrectomy Surgery
-Trauma
-Keratoconjunctivtis sicca
-Sjögren’s
-Corneal cross-linking
Subjects with bilateral corneal burns could only have one eye entered into the clinical trial
Any previous treatment was stopped except for the study medication

The subjects in the Phase 1b trial were treated with KPI-012 topically twice a day, with the subjects in the safety cohort without active corneal disease treated for one week and patients in the PCED cohort treated between one to eight weeks. KPI-012 was generally well tolerated during both trials, with only one subject experiencing treatment-related adverse events (mild and transient itching, red eye and blurred vision after study drug administration). There were no deaths or treatment-related serious adverse events during either trial. One subject in the PCED cohort had to withdraw from the trial due to a protocol screening violation.

As depicted in Figure 1 below, six of the eight patients in the PCED cohort (75%) who completed the trial achieved complete healing of the lesion after four weeks of treatment, with the two other patients experiencing some clinical improvement but not complete healing. Four of eight patients in the PCED cohort (50%) achieved complete healing of the lesion after one week of treatment and the other two patients achieved complete healing within two to four weeks of initiation of treatment with KPI-012. All six of the patients who achieved complete healing remained healed through the follow-up period of the trial, which ranged between eight to 19 weeks. Of the two patients who did not show complete healing in the trial, clinical investigators noted some clinical improvement in both patients, but the corneal staining images did not show complete healing of the defect.

Graphic

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Graphic

Figure 1. Summary of Phase 1b clinical trial of KPI-012 for PCED, including representative images for a healed patient study eye. The Day 1 images were taken on the first day of treatment, prior to first KPI-012 administration, with the fluorescein (green) stain demarking the corneal wound boundary of the study eye image. The Day 7 images were taken on the last day of KPI-012 treatment showing the PCED completely healed. The images on the left depict the study eye viewed under blue light to visualize the PCED with fluorescein stain.

Significant pain relief was reported by patients in the PCED cohort within one week of treatment with KPI-012, as shown in Figure 2 below. Of the six patients who reported pain at the baseline, all six patients reported a reduction in pain after one week of treatment, four patients reported a pain score of zero after one week of treatment and all six patients reported a pain score of zero after three weeks of treatment.

Graphic

Figure 2. PCED cohort patient-reported score of pain level due to defect using a visual analogue scale, or VAS, which is a subjective rating of pain levels on a scale of 0 to 10 where a score of 0 represents no pain at all and a score of 10 represents the worst possible pain.

KPI-012 Preclinical Studies and Results

KPI-012 was evaluated by Combangio in a number of preclinical studies. In these studies, KPI-012 promoted rapid ocular re-epithelialization and mitigated scarring and neovascularization in a number of well-established animal models.

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In vitro Human Corneal Epithelial Wound Closure Assay

The therapeutic mechanism of action of KPI-012 involves stimulating corneal re-epithelialization and ocular surface healing. Combangio evaluated KPI-012 in an in vitro wound gap assay developed using human corneal epithelial cells. In this assay, a mechanical defect (cell-free region) was introduced into a two-dimensional monolayer of epithelial cells to create a wound. The ‘injured’ monolayer was then treated with KPI-012 and the cell free region was monitored for wound closure as show in Figure 3 below. In this assay, KPI-012 exhibited a dose-dependent and potent wound closure response.

Graphic

Figure 3. Representative images from an in vitro human corneal epithelial wound closure assay. A mechanical wound instilled to a corneal epithelial cell monolayer on Day 1 healed after treatment with KPI-012 (Day 4 of treatment), but not negative control (vehicle). Depicted images are wounded cell monolayers stained with Gentian Violet.

In vivo Mechanical Wound Studies of Activity

Combangio also evaluated the activity of KPI-012 in a mechanical corneal injury mouse model. In this model, a circular area on the surface of the cornea was debrided (mechanically scraped) to remove the epithelial layer and create a circular wound.

Topical formulations of vehicle or KPI-012 were administered twice daily to the wounded eyes. As shown in Figure 4 below, mice treated with KPI-012 exhibited prominent wound healing at day four of the treatment period, while the vehicle-treated wounded eyes remained largely unhealed. Further, treatment with KPI-012 resulted in reduced corneal haze and scarring relative to treatment with vehicle. Results of this mouse model suggested that at Day 4 of treatment KPI-012 promoted in vivo closure of cornea mechanical wounds relative to vehicle control.

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Graphic

Figure 4. Representative images of wounded mouse corneas after mechanical injury (Day 1). Depicted is the fluorescein (green) stain, which demarks the corneal wound boundary. Treatment with KPI-012 rapidly healed the wound size (as indicated by the disappearance of the green stain by Day 4) relative to vehicle control-treated eyes.

A second confirmatory mechanical corneal injury mouse model study was performed according to the method described above using a different lot of KPI-012. The study yielded similar results, with KPI-012 promoting wound healing relative to vehicle as well as exhibiting dose-dependent potency dynamics. After four days of treatment, KPI-012 treated eyes exhibited more pronounced reduction in wound staining relative to vehicle-treated eyes, as shown in Figure 5A below, and after five days most KPI-012 treated eyes completely healed, as shown in Figure 5B below. Further, a KPI-012 formulation lacking key biologic factors known to mediate wound healing exhibited reduced healing capacity in the study, supporting the selection of KPI-012’s critical quality attributes.

Graphic

Figure 5. Summary of second mouse corneal mechanical study. (A) Representative images of wounded mouse corneas after mechanical injury (Day 1) and after four days of treatment with KPI-012 or vehicle (Day 4). Depicted is the fluorescein (green) stain, which demarks the corneal wound boundary. Treatment with KPI-012 rapidly healed the wound size (as indicated by the disappearance of the green stain by Day 4) relative to vehicle control-treated eyes; (B) Treatment with KPI-012 resulted in more rapid complete healing and a greater percentage of completely healed eyes (dashed line), relative to vehicle-treated eyes (solid line).

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Other Potential Indications for KPI-012 and for KPI-014

We believe the multifactorial mechanism of action of KPI-012 also makes it a platform technology, and we are evaluating the potential development of KPI-012 for additional rare front of the eye diseases, such as for the treatment of Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency and ocular manifestations of moderate-to-severe Sjögren’s. In addition, we have initiated preclinical studies under our KPI-014 program to evaluate the utility of our MSC-S platform for inherited retinal degenerative diseases, such as Retinitis Pigmentosa and Stargardt Disease.

Limbal stem cell deficiency, or LSCD, is an ocular surface disease characterized by the loss or deficiency of stem cells in the junction of the cornea and limbus, where they play an essential role in the generation and repopulation of corneal epithelial cells. When the limbal stem cell population is reduced or depleted, the ability of the corneal epithelium to repair and renew itself is compromised, which can result in recurrent epithelial breakdown, neovascularization, conjunctival overgrowth and other sequalae that can lead to loss of corneal clarity and vision impairment, as well as significant pain and diminished quality of life. There are currently no approved pharmaceutical products for the treatment of LSCD. Approximately 70% of LSCD patients – or about 70,000 patients in the United States – have partial LSCD, meaning they have some level of remaining limbal stem cells but still suffer significant pathology and symptomology. We believe these patients may be appropriate candidates for KPI-012 to maintain the integrity of the ocular surface and to avoid the vision impairment and pain associated with the disease. In addition to the effects of KPI-012 on corneal healing observed in both animal models and in PCED patients, there is data in the literature that suggest that MSC-S can restore the limbal stem cell niche, which would be of significant benefit in both partial or complete LSCD.

Sjögren’s is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease characterized by insufficient fluid production in certain glands of the body leading to substantial dryness, primarily of the eyes and the mouth. Approximately 90% of Sjögren’s patients suffer from ocular manifestations and experience significant ocular symptoms, which often impact a patient’s daily life and productivity, and as a result, the quality of life in Sjögren’s patients can be significantly diminished. Despite current treatment options, many Sjögren’s patients do not achieve significant improvement in their ocular symptoms. We believe there is a significant unmet need for new therapies that can provide meaningful improvement in the ocular symptoms, visual impairment and quality of life to the approximately 50% of Sjögren’s patients, or roughly 95,000 people in the United States, who suffer with moderate-to-severe disease.

We are also looking to leverage the manufacturing and delivery expertise gained from KPI-012 development to develop a unique secretome formulation – designated as KPI-014 – specific for retinal disease. The initial focus for the program is to target inherited retinal diseases, such as Retinitis Pigmentosa and Stargardt Disease. MSC-S therapies have shown great promise to treat inherited retinal diseases, or IRDs, with the recognition that they function through their secretome (i.e., the secretion of paracrine factors that enhance retinal cell function and survival). We believe an MSC-S engineered for intravitreal delivery may provide an improved treatment option for IRDs as compared to the traditional MSC-based approach.

IRDs are associated with mutations in over 280 different genes, where each IRD has one or more mutations that cause disease onset and results in vision loss. It is projected that over 200,000 individuals in the United States alone suffer from IRDs. While significant progress has been made with gene therapies, these are typically limited to a single gene or mutation. With over 280 different IRD-associated genes, a therapy broadly effective for most IRDs does not currently exist, leaving patients with little-to-no options to slow disease progression and vision loss. We are developing KPI-014 with the goal of providing a broad, genotype-agnostic, therapeutic benefit to reduce vision loss and improve quality of life for patients suffering from IRDs.

Competition

The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are characterized by rapidly advancing technologies, intense competition and a strong emphasis on proprietary products. While we believe that our technologies, knowledge, experience and scientific resources provide us with competitive advantages, we face competition from many different sources, including major pharmaceutical, specialty pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions and governmental agencies and public and private research institutions. Any product candidates that we successfully develop and commercialize will compete with existing therapies and new therapies that may become available in the future.

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Our competitors include large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, and specialty pharmaceutical and generic drug companies. Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals and marketing approved products than we do. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific, sales and management personnel and establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies.

The key competitive factors affecting the success of KPI-012 and any other product candidates that we develop are the product candidate’s efficacy, safety, method of administration, convenience, price, the level of generic competition and the availability of insurance coverage and reimbursement from government and other third-party payors.

Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are more convenient or are less expensive than our products. Our competitors also may obtain FDA or other regulatory approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours. In addition, our ability to compete may be affected because in many cases insurers or other third-party payors seek to encourage the use of generic products.

Competition in PCED

There is currently a significant unmet need for therapies to effectively treat PCED. Conventional therapies, which include bandage contact lenses, autologous serum and surgery, are usually ineffective in overcoming the dysregulation present in multiple cellular pathways that may need to be addressed to heal a PCED. Surgical procedures used in the treatment of PCED include tarsorrhaphy, corneal epithelial stem cell transplants and corneal transplants which are used to aid in restoration and maintenance of vision capabilities.

There is one approved prescription pharmaceutical product in the PCED space. Oxervate (cenegermin-bkbj), which was approved in August 2018 for the treatment of NK, a degenerative disease characterized by decreased corneal sensitivity and poor corneal healing, which we believe to be the primary underlying etiology of approximately one-third of all PCED cases. Oxervate is a topical eye drop that is administered six times per day at two-hour intervals for eight weeks. Each administration of Oxervate requires the use of a vial containing the drug product, a vial adapter, a single-use pipette and disinfectant wipes.

To our knowledge, there are currently only two product candidates in active clinical development for the treatment of a broad PCED population. KIO-201, a chemically modified form of the natural polymer hyaluronic acid administered as an eye drop, is currently being studied in a Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with PCED by Kiora Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Nexagon, an antisense oligonucleotide that inhibits connexin43, is currently being studied in a Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with PCED resulting from severe ocular chemical and/or thermal injuries, by Amber Ophthalmics.

A number of companies are pursuing development of product candidates for the treatment of NK, including ReGenTree, LLC (Timbetasin), Recordati S.p.A. (Udonitrectag) and Claris Biotherapeutics, Inc. (CSB-001).

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Competition in Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency and Sjögren’s

Competitive products and product candidates in LSCD include two stem cell-based approaches. ABCB5+ limbal stem cells, which are being studied in Phase 1/2 clinical trials and are being developed by RHEACELL GmbH & Co. KG, utilize allogeneic limbal stem cells derived from human corneal rims, which are expanded ex-vivo and manufactured as an advanced-therapy medicinal product. Holoclar utilizes autologous limbal stem cells derived from the healthy portion of the patient’s eye. Holoclar is approved in the European Union for treatment of LSCD caused by ocular burns and is developed by Chiesi. To our knowledge, there are no products in development focused on Partial Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency.

Competitive pharmaceutical products in moderate-to-severe Sjögren’s include cyclosporine, lifitegrast, ophthalmic cortisone and systemic immunosuppressants. To our knowledge, there are only two topical ophthalmic product candidates in active clinical development for ocular manifestations of moderate-to-severe Sjögren’s. LacripepTM, a synthetic peptide fragment of lacritin being developed by Tear Solutions, recently completed a Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with primary Sjögren’s-associated ocular surface disease. Oxervate® (cenegermin-bkbj) is currently being evaluated in Phase 3 clinical trials in patients with severe Sjögren’s dry eye disease. Several systemic pharmaceutical product candidates are also in clinical development for the treatment of Sjögren’s, including Dazodalibep (Horizon Therapeutics), SAR-441344 (Sanofi), Ianalumab (Novartis), Branebrutinib (Novartis), Iscalimab (Novartis) and OSE-127 (OSE Immuno Therapeutics). 

Sales and Marketing

We have not yet established our own commercial organization or distribution capabilities specific to KPI-012. We believe that we will be able to commercialize KPI-012, if approved, for the treatment of PCED with a small, targeted, internal sales force in the United States and potentially other major markets. We expect to explore commercialization of KPI-012, if approved, in certain markets outside the United States utilizing a variety of collaboration, distribution, co-promotion, distribution and other marketing arrangements with one or more third parties.

Manufacturing and Supply

We do not own or operate, and currently have no plans to establish, any manufacturing facilities for KPI-012. We rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties for the manufacture of both drug substance and finished drug product for KPI-012 for preclinical and clinical testing, as well as for commercial manufacture of KPI-012 if it receives marketing approval. We utilize our substantial in-house expertise and know-how to develop and scale-up our manufacturing processes before these processes are transferred to third-party contract manufacturers, and to understand and establish controls of critical process parameters. We also have personnel with deep product development experience who actively manage the third-party contract manufacturers producing KPI-012 and plan to use such personnel to manage third-party contract manufacturers for any products that we may develop in the future.

We also rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties for packaging, labeling, sterilization, storage, distribution and other production logistics for KPI-012. We have only limited supply agreements in place with respect to the manufacturing of KPI-012, and these arrangements do not extend to commercial supply. We obtain supplies of drug substance and finished drug product for KPI-012 on a purchase order basis and do not have long term committed supply arrangements with respect to KPI-012.

Manufacturing biologics is complex, especially in large quantities. Biologic products must be made consistently and in compliance with a clearly defined manufacturing process. KPI-012 is a bone-marrow derived MSC-S therapeutic composed of biologically active components, including protease inhibitors and growth factors, and is produced from a proprietary cell bank. The manufacturing process for KPI-012 is comprised of three stages: (1) cultivation of MSCs from a working cell bank and production of unprocessed conditioned media (cell-free secretome), (2) production of drug substance as a chemically defined solution and (3) formulation and filling of drug product. While the drug product for Combangio’s early research and Phase 1b clinical trial was cultivated using a planar culture model, we implemented a bioreactor cultivation model for our ongoing CHASE Phase 2b clinical trial of KPI-012. We also plan to utilize a bioreactor cultivation model for our planned clinical trials and for commercial supply of KPI-012. We are continuing the process of scaling up our manufacturing processes and capabilities with our third-party manufacturers to support longer

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term clinical development. We do not currently have arrangements in place for redundant supply or a second source for bulk drug substance.

KPI-012 drug product is manufactured from a vial of a working cell bank, which in turn was produced from a vial of master cell bank. KPI-012 master cell bank and working cell bank are stored in two separate locations. It is possible that we could lose the cell bank in both locations and have our manufacturing severely impacted by the need to replace the cell bank.

Intellectual Property

Our success depends significantly on our ability to obtain and maintain proprietary protection for our products, product candidates, technology and knowhow, to operate without infringing the proprietary rights of others and to prevent others from infringing our proprietary rights. We seek to protect our proprietary position by, among other methods, filing U.S. and certain foreign patent applications related to our proprietary technology, inventions and improvements that are important to the development of our business, where patent protection is available. We also rely on trade secrets, know--how, continuing technological innovation and in-licensing opportunities to develop and maintain our proprietary position.

As of February 15, 2023, we owned 49 U.S. issued patents and 9 U.S. patent applications, as well as 55 foreign issued patents and 41 foreign patent applications (including Patent Cooperation Treaty, or PCT, applications). We exclusively licensed one U.S. patent application, as well as two foreign patent applications including original filings, continuations and divisional applications. Our patent portfolio includes the following patents and patent applications that we own or exclusively license:

Three U.S. patents and two U.S. patent applications relating to pharmaceutical compositions including KPI-012 for treating ocular conditions, and 18 related foreign patent applications, which are owned by us, and which, if granted with respect to the patent applications, and if the appropriate maintenance, renewal, annuity or other governmental fees are paid, are expected to expire beginning in 2040;
One U.S. patent application, related to secreted stem cell factors for tissue repairment and regeneration, and two related foreign patent applications, which are exclusively in-licensed from Stanford University, and which, if granted with respect to the patent applications, and if the appropriate maintenance, renewal, annuity or other governmental fees are paid, are expected to expire beginning in 2038;
43 U.S. patents and 7 U.S. patent applications, relating to TKI compounds, including KPI-287, and their uses, and 50 related foreign patents, and 23 foreign related patent applications, including pending PCT applications, which are owned by us, and which, if granted with respect to the patent applications, and if the appropriate maintenance, renewal, annuity or other governmental fees are paid, which are expected to expire beginning in 2034 through 2038; and

Three U.S. patents relating to antibiotic compounds and their uses, and five related foreign patents, which are owned by us, and which, if granted with respect to the patent applications, and if the appropriate maintenance, renewal, annuity or other governmental fees are paid, are expected to expire in 2034.The term of individual patents depends upon the legal term for patents in the countries in which they are granted. In most countries, including the United States, the patent term is generally 20 years from the earliest claimed filing date of a non-provisional patent application in the applicable country. In the United States, a patent’s term may, in certain cases, be lengthened by patent term adjustment, which compensates a patentee for administrative delays by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in examining and granting a patent, or may be shortened if a patent is terminally disclaimed over a commonly owned patent or a patent naming a common inventor and having an earlier expiration date. The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, or the Hatch-Waxman Act, permits a patent term extension of up to five years beyond the expiration date of a U.S. patent as partial compensation for the length of time the drug is under regulatory review while the patent is in force. A patent term extension cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval, only one patent applicable to each regulatory review period may be extended and only those claims covering the approved drug, a method for using it or a method for manufacturing it may be extended. We cannot provide any assurance that any patent term extension with respect to any U.S. patent will be obtained and, if obtained, the duration of such extension.

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Similar provisions are available in the European Union and certain other foreign jurisdictions to extend the term of a patent that covers an approved drug. In the future, if and when our product candidates receive approval by the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities, we expect to apply for patent term extensions on issued patents covering those products, if permitted under the applicable laws, regulations, and rules and depending upon the length of the clinical trials for each drug and other factors. The expiration dates referred to above are without regard to potential patent term extension or other market exclusivity that may be available to us. However, we cannot provide any assurances that any such patent term extension of any patent will be obtained and, if obtained, the duration of such extension.

Trade Secrets

In addition to patents, we may rely, in some circumstances, on trade secrets to protect our technology. However, trade secrets can be difficult to protect. We seek to protect our proprietary technology and processes, and obtain and maintain ownership of certain technologies, in part, by confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees, consultants, scientific advisors and contractors. We also seek to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of our data and trade secrets by maintaining physical security of our premises and physical and electronic security of our information technology systems.

Licensing and Other Arrangements

Stanford University License Agreement

As part of our acquisition of Combangio, we acquired Combangio’s exclusively in-licensed patent portfolio from Stanford University. In October 2019, Combangio entered into a license agreement with The Board of Trustees of The Leland Stanford Junior University, or Stanford, which was amended in February 2020. Pursuant to the license agreement with Stanford, or the Stanford Agreement, we hold a worldwide, exclusive, sublicensable license under certain patent rights, or licensed patents, directed to methods to promote eye wound healing, to make, have made, use, import, offer to sell and sell products that are covered by the licensed patents, or licensed products, for use in all fields.

Financial Terms

In consideration for that license, Combangio paid Stanford an upfront fee of $15,000. Under the Stanford Agreement, we are obligated to pay Stanford annual license maintenance fees in the low-to-mid five figures which are creditable against earned royalties owed to Stanford for the same year, an aggregate of up to $1.075 million for the achievement of specified development and regulatory milestones, and an aggregate of up to $1.1 million for the achievement of specified sales milestones. Stanford is also entitled to receive tiered royalties from us in a low single digit percentage range of our, our affiliates’ and our sublicensees’ net sales of licensed products that are covered by a valid claim of a licensed patent. Our obligation to pay royalties will continue, on a country-by-country and licensed product-by-licensed product basis, until the last-to-expire valid claim of a licensed patent covering such licensed product in the country of manufacture and sale. Additionally, we are required to pay Stanford a low double-digit percentage of certain consideration we receive as a result of granting sublicenses to the licensed patents. In connection with our acquisition of Combangio, we paid Stanford a one-time change of control fee of $100,000. Stanford retains the right, on behalf of itself, Stanford Health Care, Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital at Stanford, and all other non-profit research institutions, to practice the licensed patents for any non-profit purpose. In addition, the United States government retains nonexclusive rights under the licensed patents to practice or have practiced the licensed patents by or on behalf of the United States government or on behalf of any foreign government or international organization pursuant to treaty or agreement.

Diligence Obligations

Under the Stanford Agreement, we are obligated to diligently develop, manufacture and sell licensed product, diligently develop markets for licensed product, and use commercially reasonable efforts to achieve certain funding and development milestones by specified dates.

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Term and Termination

Unless earlier terminated, our exclusive license under the Stanford Agreement will continue until the expiration of the licensed patents. We may terminate the Stanford Agreement at any time for any reason by providing at least 30 days’ written notice to Stanford. Stanford may terminate the agreement if we breach certain provisions of the agreement and fail to remedy such breach within 60 days after written notice of such breach by Stanford.

Combangio Merger Agreement

In connection with the acquisition of Combangio on November 15, 2021, we entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger, or the Merger Agreement, with Combangio. In connection with the closing, we made an upfront payment of an aggregate of $5.0 million in cash to former Combangio stockholders and other equityholders, or the Combangio Equityholders, subject to customary adjustments, and agreed to issue an aggregate of 155,664 shares, or the Deferred Purchase Consideration, of our common stock to the Combangio Equityholders with an aggregate value of approximately $16.1 million, consisting of (i) an aggregate of 136,314 shares of common stock which were issued on January 3, 2022 and (ii) an aggregate of 19,350 shares of common stock that were initially held back as partial security for the satisfaction of indemnification obligations and other payment obligations of the Combangio Equityholders and that will be issued in March 2023 upon escrow release.

In addition, pursuant to the Merger Agreement, the Combangio Equityholders are entitled to receive from us up to $105.0 million in payments that are contingent upon the achievement of specified development, regulatory and commercialization milestones, or the Contingent Consideration, and are payable in cash and shares of our common stock, subject to the Share Cap (as defined below), of which $4.9 million will be paid in March 2023. If the issuance of the Deferred Purchase Consideration or any contingent consideration payable in shares of our common stock, or the Contingent Stock Consideration, would result in the aggregate number of shares of our common stock issued under the Merger Agreement equaling or exceeding 19.9% of the total number of shares of our common stock issued and outstanding immediately prior to the closing, or the Share Cap, then we will be required to pay the portion of such consideration in excess of the Share Cap in cash. The portion of any payment of Contingent Consideration payable in cash is referred to as “Contingent Cash Consideration”.

Upon dosing of the first patient in our CHASE Phase 2b clinical trial of KPI-012 for PCED in the United States in February 2023, or the Dosing Milestone, in March 2023 we will pay to the former Combangio Equityholders an aggregate of $2.5 million in cash and $2.4 million in shares of our common stock (representing an aggregate of 105,039 shares of our common stock). The remaining amount of $0.1 million will be paid in January 2024. Upon payment of the Dosing Milestone, we reached the Share Cap and any Contingent Consideration payable under the Merger Agreement in the future will be paid only in cash.

Subject to the terms and conditions of the Merger Agreement, the former Combangio Equityholders are entitled to receive from us the following remaining Contingent Consideration in cash:

(i) $5.0 million payable upon the first patient dosed with any product candidate whose active ingredient comprises one or more biological factors secreted by MSCs or their progenitors, including KPI-012, or the Product Candidate, in a pivotal clinical trial, (ii) $12.5 million payable upon regulatory approval by the FDA of marketing and sale of a Product Candidate in the United States, subject to certain specified reductions; (iii) $17.5 million payable upon the first commercial sale of a Product Candidate in the United States, subject to certain specified reductions and (iv) an aggregate of up to $65.0 million payable upon the achievement of specified sales milestones;
tiered cash royalties at percentage rates in the mid-to-high single digits payable on annual net sales of all Product Candidates; and
a cash payment at a percentage rate in the high single digits of all income, including earnout payments, received by us or any of our affiliates from a product license granted by us to a third party to sell or otherwise commercialize the Product Candidate in countries where neither we nor our affiliates conduct sales of such Product Candidate, subject to certain exceptions set forth in the Merger Agreement.

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If the aggregate amount of Contingent Cash Consideration payable in any calendar year (after giving effect to the Share Cap) exceeds $2,500,000, or the Excess Cash Cap, such excess portion, or the Carry Forward Contingent Cash Consideration, will be carried forward and, subject to application of the Excess Cash Cap in the following calendar year, become payable on the first business day of the following calendar year. Any Carry Forward Contingent Cash Consideration outstanding on June 1, 2026 is payable in full on June 1, 2026.

Securities Purchase Agreement for Private Placement

On November 28, 2022, we entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement, or the Securities Purchase Agreement, with certain institutional investors named therein, or the Purchasers, pursuant to which we agreed to issue and sell, in a private placement priced at-the-market under Nasdaq rules, shares of our common stock and shares of our Series E Convertible Non-Redeemable Preferred Stock, or Series E Preferred Stock, in two tranches for aggregate gross proceeds of up to $31.0 million, which we refer to collectively as the Private Placement.

Pursuant to the Securities Purchase Agreement, if at any time during the four-year period following the date of the first tranche closing, or the Participation Period, we propose to offer and sell new equity securities in an offering that is conducted pursuant to an exemption from registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, or in an offering that is registered under the Securities Act that is not conducted as a firm-commitment underwritten offering, then, subject to compliance with securities laws and regulations, we have agreed to offer each Purchaser the right to purchase its pro rata share of the total amount of the new equity securities, subject to certain conditions and limitations. In addition, if during the Participation Period, we propose to offer and sell new equity securities in a firm-commitment underwritten offering registered under the Securities Act, then subject to compliance with securities laws and regulations, we have agreed to use our commercially reasonable efforts to cause the managing underwriters of such offering to contact the Purchasers about potentially participating in such offering and to provide to each Purchaser the opportunity to purchase its pro rata share of such new equity securities, subject to certain conditions and limitations. The participation rights will terminate if the Purchasers are offered the opportunity to participate in an offering pursuant to the participation rights and do not purchase at least 50% of their aggregate pro rata share of the new equity securities offered for sale in such offering.

Pursuant to the Securities Purchase Agreement, the Purchasers have the right to have up to two non-voting observers attend and participate in all Board and committee meetings and, subject to the Purchasers owning directly specified minimum amounts of our common stock, the right to have the Board nominate and recommend for election by the stockholders up to three Purchaser designees to the Board (one designee at 9.9%, two designees at 15.0% and three designees at 25.0%) designated by the Purchasers, provided that at such time as the Purchasers have designated three Board designees, at least one such designee must qualify as an “independent” director under Nasdaq rules and be acceptable to the members of the Board who are not Purchaser designees.

The Purchasers’ participation rights, observer rights and Board designation rights also will terminate at such time as the Purchasers and their affiliates cease to own, in the aggregate, specified minimum amounts of the shares purchased in the Private Placement.

Pursuant to the Securities Purchase Agreement, we agreed that we will not without the prior approval of the requisite Purchasers (i) issue or authorize the issuance of any equity security that is senior or pari passu to the Series E Preferred Stock with respect to liquidation preference, (ii) incur any additional indebtedness for borrowed money in excess of $1,000,000, in the aggregate, outside the ordinary course of business, subject to specified exceptions, including the refinancing of our existing indebtedness or (iii) pay or declare any dividend or make any distribution on, any shares of our capital stock, subject to specified exceptions. In connection with the Private Placement, we have also entered into a registration rights agreement with the Purchasers, pursuant to which the Purchasers are entitled to certain resale registration rights with respect to the shares of common stock acquired in the Private Placement and the shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of the shares of Series E Preferred Stock acquired in the Private Placement.

Government Regulation and Product Approvals

Government authorities in the United States, at the federal, state and local level, and in other countries and jurisdictions, including the European Union, extensively regulate, among other things, the research, development, testing, manufacture, pricing, quality control, approval, packaging, storage, recordkeeping, labeling, advertising, promotion, distribution, marketing, post-approval monitoring and reporting, and import and export of biopharmaceutical

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products. The processes for obtaining marketing approvals in the United States and in foreign countries and jurisdictions, along with compliance with applicable statutes and regulations and other regulatory authorities, require the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources.

U.S. Government Regulation of Drugs and Biological Products

In the United States, biological products, or biologics, are licensed for marketing by the FDA under the Public Health Service Act, or the PHSA, and regulated by the FDA under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA. A company, institution, or organization which takes responsibility for the initiation and management of a clinical development program for such products, and for their regulatory approval, is typically referred to as a sponsor. A sponsor seeking approval to market and distribute a new biologic in the United States must satisfactorily complete each of the following steps:

completion of preclinical laboratory tests, animal studies and formulation studies according to good laboratory practices, or GLP, regulations or other applicable regulations;
design of a clinical protocol and submission to the FDA of an IND, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin and must be updated when certain changes are made;
approval by an independent institutional review board, or IRB, or ethics committee representing each clinical trial site before each clinical trial may be initiated;
performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials in accordance with applicable IND regulations, good clinical practices, or GCPs, and other clinical-trial related regulations to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the investigational product for each proposed indication;
preparation and submission to the FDA of a BLA requesting marketing approval for one or more proposed indications, including payment of application user fees;
review of the BLA by an FDA advisory committee, where applicable;
satisfactory completion of one or more FDA inspections of the manufacturing facility or facilities at which the biologic is produced to assess compliance with cGMP requirements to assure that the facilities, methods and controls are adequate to preserve the product’s identity, strength, quality and purity;
satisfactory completion of any FDA audits of clinical trial sites to assure compliance with GCPs and the integrity of the clinical data submitted in support of the BLA; and
FDA review and approval of the BLA, which may be subject to additional post-approval requirements, including the potential requirement to implement a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy, or REMS, and any post-approval studies required by the FDA. 

Preclinical Studies

Before a sponsor begins testing a product candidate with potential therapeutic value in humans, the product candidate enters the preclinical testing stage. Preclinical tests include laboratory evaluations of product chemistry, formulation and stability, as well as other studies to evaluate, among other things, the toxicity of the product candidate. These studies are typically referred to as IND-enabling studies. The conduct of the preclinical tests and formulation of the compounds for testing must comply with federal regulations and requirements, including GLP regulations and standards and the United States Department of Agriculture’s Animal Welfare Act, if applicable. The results of the preclinical tests, together with manufacturing information and analytical data, are submitted to the FDA as part of an IND. Some long-term preclinical testing, such as animal tests of reproductive adverse events and carcinogenicity, and long-term toxicity studies, may continue after the IND is submitted.

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The IND and IRB Processes

An IND is an exemption from the FDCA that allows an unapproved product candidate to be shipped in interstate commerce for use in an investigational clinical trial and a request for FDA authorization to administer such investigational product to humans. Such authorization must be secured prior to interstate shipment and administration of any product candidate that is not the subject of an approved BLA. In support of a request for an IND, sponsors must submit a protocol for each clinical trial and any subsequent protocol amendments must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND. In addition, the results of the preclinical tests, together with manufacturing information, analytical data, any available clinical data or literature and plans for clinical trials, among other things, must be submitted to the FDA as part of an IND. The FDA requires a 30-day waiting period after the filing of each IND before clinical trials may begin. This waiting period is designed to allow the FDA to review the IND to determine whether human research subjects will be exposed to unreasonable health risks. At any time during this 30-day period, or thereafter, the FDA may raise concerns or questions about the conduct of the trials as outlined in the IND and impose a clinical hold or partial clinical hold. In this case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns before clinical trials can begin.

Following commencement of a clinical trial under an IND, the FDA may also place a clinical hold or partial clinical hold on that trial. A clinical hold is an order issued by the FDA to the sponsor to delay a proposed clinical investigation or to suspend an ongoing investigation. A partial clinical hold is a delay or suspension of only part of the clinical work requested under the IND. For example, a specific protocol or part of a protocol is not allowed to proceed, while other protocols may do so. No more than 30 days after imposition of a clinical hold or partial clinical hold, the FDA will provide the sponsor a written explanation of the basis for the hold. Following issuance of a clinical hold or partial clinical hold, an investigation may only resume after the FDA has notified the sponsor that the investigation may proceed. The FDA will base that determination on information provided by the sponsor correcting the deficiencies previously cited or otherwise satisfying the FDA that the investigation can proceed.

A sponsor may choose, but is not required, to conduct a foreign clinical study under an IND. When a foreign clinical study is conducted under an IND, all FDA IND requirements must be met unless waived. When a foreign clinical study is not conducted under an IND, the sponsor must ensure that the study complies with certain regulatory requirements of the FDA in order to use the study as support for an IND or application for marketing approval. The FDA’s regulations are intended to help ensure the protection of human subjects enrolled in non-IND foreign clinical studies, as well as the quality and integrity of the resulting data. They further help ensure that non-IND foreign studies are conducted in a manner comparable to that required for IND studies.

In addition to the foregoing IND requirements, an IRB representing each institution participating in the clinical trial must review and approve the plan for any clinical trial before it commences at that institution, and the IRB must conduct continuing review and reapprove the study at least annually. The IRB must review and approve, among other things, the study protocol and informed consent information to be provided to study subjects. An IRB must operate in compliance with FDA regulations. An IRB can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical trial at its institution, or an institution it represents, if the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with the IRB’s requirements or if the product candidate has been associated with unexpected serious harm to patients.

Additionally, some trials are overseen by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the trial sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board or committee, or DSMB. This group provides recommendations as to whether or not a trial may move forward at designated check points based on access that only the group maintains to available data from the study. Suspension or termination of development during any phase of clinical trials can occur if it is determined that the participants or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Other reasons for suspension or termination may be made by us based on evolving business objectives and/or competitive climate.

Reporting Clinical Trial Results

Under the PHSA, sponsors of clinical trials of certain FDA-regulated products, including prescription drugs and biologics, are required to register and disclose certain clinical trial information on a public registry (clinicaltrials.gov) maintained by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, or NIH. In particular, information related to the product, patient population, phase of investigation, study sites and investigators and other aspects of the clinical trial is made public as part of the registration of the clinical trial. Although sponsors are also obligated to disclose the results of their clinical trials after completion, disclosure of the results can be delayed in some cases for up to two years after the date of

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completion of the trial. The NIH’s final rule on registration and reporting requirements for clinical trials became effective in 2017, and both NIH and the FDA have recently signaled the government’s willingness to begin enforcing those requirements against non-compliant clinical trial sponsors.

Specifically, the PHSA grants the Secretary of Health and Human Services the authority to issue a notice of noncompliance to a responsible party for failure to submit clinical trial information as required. The responsible party, however, is allowed 30 days to correct the noncompliance and submit the required information. The failure to submit clinical trial information to clinicaltrials.gov, as required, is also a prohibited act under the FDCA with violations subject to potential civil monetary penalties of up to $10,000 for each day the violation continues. In addition to civil monetary penalties, violations may also result in other regulatory action, such as injunction and/or criminal prosecution or disqualification from federal grants. Although the FDA has historically not enforced these reporting requirements due to the Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS’s, long delay in issuing final implementing regulations, those regulations have now been issued and the FDA has issued several Notices of Noncompliance to manufacturers since April 2021.

Expanded Access to an Investigational Drug for Treatment Use

Expanded access, sometimes called “compassionate use,” is the use of investigational new drug products outside of clinical trials to treat patients with serious or immediately life-threatening diseases or conditions when there are no comparable or satisfactory alternative treatment options. The rules and regulations related to expanded access are intended to improve access to investigational drugs for patients who may benefit from investigational therapies. FDA regulations allow access to investigational drugs under an IND by the company or the treating physician for treatment purposes on a case-by-case basis for: individual patients (single-patient IND applications for treatment in emergency settings and non-emergency settings); intermediate-size patient populations; and larger populations for use of the drug under a treatment protocol or Treatment IND Application.

When considering an IND application for expanded access to an investigational product with the purpose of treating a patient or a group of patients, the sponsor and treating physicians or investigators will determine suitability when all of the following criteria apply: patient(s) have a serious or immediately life-threatening disease or condition, and there is no comparable or satisfactory alternative therapy to diagnose, monitor, or treat the disease or condition; the potential patient benefit justifies the potential risks of the treatment and the potential risks are not unreasonable in the context or condition to be treated; and the expanded use of the investigational drug for the requested treatment will not interfere initiation, conduct, or completion of clinical investigations that could support marketing approval of the product or otherwise compromise the potential development of the product.

There is no obligation for a sponsor to make its investigational products available for expanded access. Sponsors are required, however, to make their expanded access policies publicly available upon the earlier of initiation of a Phase 2 or Phase 3 study; or 15 days after the drug or biologic receives designation as a breakthrough therapy, fast track product, or regenerative medicine advanced therapy.

In addition, on May 30, 2018, the Right to Try Act, was signed into law. The law, among other things, provides a federal framework for certain patients to access certain investigational new drug products that have completed a Phase I clinical trial and that are undergoing investigation for FDA approval. Under certain circumstances, eligible patients can seek treatment without enrolling in clinical trials and without obtaining FDA permission under the FDA expanded access program. There is no obligation for a drug manufacturer to make its drug products available to eligible patients as a result of the Right to Try Act, but the manufacturer must develop an internal policy and respond to patient requests according to that policy.

Human Clinical Trials in Support of a BLA

Clinical trials involve the administration of the investigational product candidate to human subjects under the supervision of a qualified investigator in accordance with GCP requirements which include, among other things, the requirement that all research subjects provide their informed consent in writing before their participation in any clinical trial. Clinical trials are conducted under written clinical trial protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the study, inclusion and exclusion criteria, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety and the effectiveness criteria to be evaluated.

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Human clinical trials are typically conducted in three sequential phases, but the phases may overlap or be combined. Additional studies may also be required after approval.

Phase 1 clinical trials are initially conducted in a limited population to test the product candidate for safety, including adverse effects, dose tolerance, absorption, metabolism, distribution, excretion and pharmacodynamics in healthy humans or in patients. During Phase 1 clinical trials, information about the investigational product’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacological effects may be obtained to permit the design of well-controlled and scientifically valid Phase 2 clinical trials.

Phase 2 clinical trials are generally conducted in a limited patient population to identify possible adverse effects and safety risks, evaluate the efficacy of the product candidate for specific targeted indications and determine dose tolerance and optimal dosage. Multiple Phase 2 clinical trials may be conducted by the sponsor to obtain information prior to beginning larger and more costly Phase 3 clinical trials. Phase 2 clinical trials are well controlled, closely monitored and conducted in a limited patient population.

Phase 3 clinical trials proceed if the Phase 2 clinical trials demonstrate that a dose range of the product candidate is potentially effective and has an acceptable safety profile. Phase 3 clinical trials are undertaken within an expanded patient population to further evaluate dosage, provide substantial evidence of clinical efficacy and further test for safety in an expanded and diverse patient population at multiple, geographically dispersed clinical trial sites. A well-controlled, statistically robust Phase 3 clinical trial may be designed to deliver the data that regulatory authorities will use to decide whether or not to approve, and, if approved, how to appropriately label a drug or biologic: such Phase 3 studies are referred to as “pivotal.”

In some cases, the FDA may approve a BLA for a product candidate but require the sponsor to conduct additional clinical trials to further assess the product candidate’s safety and effectiveness after approval. Such post-approval trials are typically referred to as Phase 4 clinical trials. These studies are used to gain additional experience from the treatment of a larger number of patients in the intended treatment group and to further document a clinical benefit in the case of products approved under accelerated approval regulations. Failure to exhibit due diligence with regard to conducting Phase 4 clinical trials could result in withdrawal of approval for products.

In December 2022, with the passage of Food and Drug Omnibus Reform Act, or FDORA, Congress required sponsors to develop and submit a diversity action plan for each phase 3 clinical trial or any other “pivotal study” of a new drug or biological product. These plans are meant to encourage the enrollment of more diverse patient populations in late-stage clinical trials of FDA-regulated products. Specifically, actions plans must include the sponsor’s goals for enrollment, the underlying rationale for those goals, and an explanation of how the sponsor intends to meet them. In addition to these requirements, the legislation directs the FDA to issue new guidance on diversity action plans.

Interactions with FDA During the Clinical Development Program

Following the clearance of an IND and the commencement of clinical trials, the sponsor will continue to have interactions with the FDA. Progress reports detailing the results of clinical trials must be submitted at least annually to the FDA and more frequently if serious adverse events occur. In addition, IND safety reports must be submitted to the FDA for any of the following: serious and unexpected suspected adverse reactions; findings from other studies or animal or in vitro testing that suggest a significant risk in humans exposed to the product; and any clinically important increase in the case of a serious suspected adverse reaction over that listed in the protocol or investigator brochure. Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials may not be completed successfully within any specified period, or completed at all. The FDA will typically inspect one or more clinical sites to assure compliance with GCP and the integrity of the clinical data submitted.

In addition, sponsors are given opportunities to meet with the FDA at certain points in the clinical development program. Specifically, sponsors may meet with the FDA prior to the submission of an IND (Pre-IND meeting), at the end of Phase 2 clinical trial (EOP2 meeting) and before a BLA is submitted (Pre-BLA meeting). Meetings at other times may also be requested. There are four types of meetings that occur between sponsors and the FDA. Type A meetings are those that are necessary for an otherwise stalled product development program to proceed or to address an important safety issue. Type B meetings include pre-IND and pre-BLA meetings, as well as end of phase meetings such as EOP2 meetings. A Type C meeting is any meeting other than a Type A or Type B meeting regarding the development and

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review of a product, including for example meetings to facilitate early consultations on the use of a biomarker as a new surrogate endpoint that has never been previously used as the primary basis for product approval in the proposed context of use. Finally, a type D meeting is focused on a narrow set of issues (should be limited to no more than two focused topics) and should not require input from more than three disciplines or divisions.

These meetings provide an opportunity for the sponsor to share information about the data gathered to date with the FDA and for the FDA to provide advice on the next phase of development. For example, at an EOP2, a sponsor may discuss its Phase 2 clinical results and present its plans for the pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial(s) that it believes will support the approval of the new product. Such meetings may be conducted in person, via teleconference/videoconference or written response only with minutes reflecting the questions that the sponsor posed to the FDA and the FDA’s responses. The FDA has indicated that its responses, as conveyed in meeting minutes and advice letters, only constitute mere recommendations and/or advice made to a sponsor and, as such, sponsors are not bound by such recommendations and/or advice. Nonetheless, from a practical perspective, a sponsor’s failure to follow the FDA’s recommendations for design of a clinical program may put the program at significant risk of failure.

Manufacturing and Other Regulatory Requirements

Concurrent with clinical trials, sponsors usually complete additional animal safety studies, develop additional information about the chemistry and physical characteristics of the product candidate and finalize a process for manufacturing commercial quantities of the product candidate in accordance with cGMP requirements. The manufacturing process must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of the product candidate and, among other criteria, the sponsor must develop methods for testing the identity, strength, quality, and purity of the finished product. Additionally, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that the product candidate does not undergo unacceptable deterioration over its shelf life.

Specifically, the FDA’s regulations require that pharmaceutical products be manufactured in specific approved facilities and in accordance with cGMPs. The cGMP regulations include requirements relating to organization of personnel, buildings and facilities, equipment, control of components and product containers and closures, production and process controls, packaging and labeling controls, holding and distribution, laboratory controls, records and reports and returned or salvaged products. Manufacturers and other entities involved in the manufacture and distribution of approved pharmaceuticals are required to register their establishments with the FDA and some state agencies. The PREVENT Pandemics Act, which was enacted in December 2022, clarifies that foreign drug manufacturing establishments are subject to registration and listing requirements even if a drug or biologic undergoes further manufacture, preparation, propagation, compounding or processing at a separate establishment outside the United States prior to being imported or offered for import into the United States. 

Manufacturing facilities are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA for compliance with cGMPs and other requirements. Inspections must follow a “risk-based schedule” that may result in certain establishments being inspected more frequently. Manufacturers may also have to provide, on request, electronic or physical records regarding their establishments. Delaying, denying, limiting, or refusing inspection by the FDA may lead to a product being deemed to be adulterated. Changes to the manufacturing process, specifications or container closure system for an approved product are strictly regulated and often require prior FDA approval before being implemented. The FDA’s regulations also require, among other things, the investigation and correction of any deviations from cGMP and the imposition of reporting and documentation requirements upon the sponsor and any third-party manufacturers involved in producing the approved product.

Pediatric Studies

Under the Pediatric Research Equity Act of 2003, or PREA, an application or supplement thereto must contain data that are adequate to assess the safety and effectiveness of the product for the claimed indications in all relevant pediatric subpopulations, and to support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation for which the product is safe and effective. Sponsors must also submit pediatric study plans prior to the assessment data. Those plans must contain an outline of the proposed pediatric study or studies the sponsor plans to conduct, including study objectives and design, any deferral or waiver requests and other information required by regulation. The sponsor, the

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FDA, and the FDA’s internal review committee must then review the information submitted, consult with each other and agree upon a final plan. The FDA or the sponsor may request an amendment to the plan at any time.

The FDA may, on its own initiative or at the request of the sponsor, grant deferrals for submission of some or all pediatric data until after approval of the product for use in adults, or full or partial waivers from the pediatric data requirements. A deferral may be granted for several reasons, including a finding that the product or therapeutic candidate is ready for approval for use in adults before pediatric trials are complete or that additional safety or effectiveness data needs to be collected before the pediatric trials begin. The law now requires the FDA to send a PREA Non-Compliance letter to sponsors who have failed to submit their pediatric assessments required under PREA, have failed to seek or obtain a deferral or deferral extension or have failed to request approval for a required pediatric formulation. It further requires the FDA to publicly post the PREA Non-Compliance letter and sponsor’s response. Unless otherwise required by regulation, the pediatric data requirements do not apply to products with orphan designation, although FDA has recently taken steps to limit what it considers abuse of this statutory exemption in PREA by announcing that it does not intend to grant any additional orphan drug designations for rare pediatric subpopulations of what is otherwise a common disease. The FDA also maintains a list of diseases that are exempt from PREA requirements due to low prevalence of disease in the pediatric population.

Expedited Review Programs

The FDA is authorized to expedite the review of applications in several ways. None of these expedited programs, however, changes the standards for approval but they may help expedite the development or approval process of product candidates.

Fast Track designation: Product candidates are eligible for Fast Track designation if they are intended to treat a serious or life-threatening condition and demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs for the condition. Fast Track designation applies to the combination of the product candidate and the specific indication for which it is being studied. In addition to other benefits, such as the ability to have greater interactions with the FDA, the FDA may initiate review of sections of a Fast Track application before the application is complete, a process known as rolling review.
Breakthrough therapy designation. To qualify for the breakthrough therapy program, product candidates must be intended to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and preliminary clinical evidence must indicate that such product candidates may demonstrate substantial improvement on one or more clinically significant endpoints over existing therapies. The FDA will seek to ensure the sponsor of a breakthrough therapy product candidate receives intensive guidance on an efficient development program, intensive involvement of senior managers and experienced staff on a proactive, collaborative and cross-disciplinary review and rolling review.
Priority review. A product candidate is eligible for priority review if it treats a serious condition and, if approved, it would be a significant improvement in the safety or effectiveness of the treatment, diagnosis or prevention compared to marketed products. FDA aims to complete its review of priority review applications within six months as opposed to 10 months for standard review.
Accelerated approval. Drug or biologic products studied for their safety and effectiveness in treating serious or life-threatening illnesses and that provide meaningful therapeutic benefit over existing treatments may receive accelerated approval. Accelerated approval means that a product candidate may be approved on the basis of adequate and well controlled clinical trials establishing that the product candidate has an effect on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict a clinical benefit, or on the basis of an effect on a clinical endpoint other than survival or irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit, taking into account the severity, rarity and prevalence of the condition and the availability or lack of alternative treatments. As a condition of approval, the FDA may require that a sponsor of a drug or biologic product candidate receiving accelerated approval perform adequate and well controlled post-marketing clinical trials. In addition, the FDA currently requires as a condition for accelerated approval pre-approval of promotional materials. With passage of the Food and Drug Omnibus Reform Act, or FDORA, in December 2022, Congress modified certain provisions governing accelerated approval of drug and biologic products. Specifically, the new legislation authorized the FDA to: require a sponsor to have its confirmatory clinical trial underway before accelerated approval is awarded, require a sponsor of a product granted accelerated approval to submit progress reports on its

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post-approval studies to FDA every six months (until the study is completed; and use expedited procedures to withdraw accelerated approval of a BLA after the confirmatory trial fails to verify the product’s clinical benefit. Further, FDORA requires the agency to publish on its website “the rationale for why a post-approval study is not appropriate or necessary” whenever it decides not to require such a study upon granting accelerated approval.
Regenerative advanced therapy. With passage of the 21st Century Cures Act, or the Cures Act, in December 2016, Congress authorized the FDA to accelerate review and approval of products designated as regenerative advanced therapies. A product is eligible for this designation if it is a regenerative medicine therapy that is intended to treat, modify, reverse or cure a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the product candidate has the potential to address unmet medical needs for such disease or condition. The benefits of a regenerative advanced therapy designation include early interactions with the FDA to expedite development and review, benefits available to breakthrough therapies, potential eligibility for priority review and accelerated approval based on surrogate or intermediate endpoints.

Acceptance and Review of BLAs

Assuming successful completion of the required clinical testing, the results of the preclinical studies and clinical trials, along with information relating to the product’s chemistry, manufacturing, controls, safety updates, patent information, abuse information and proposed labeling, are submitted to the FDA as part of an application requesting approval to market the product candidate for one or more indications. Data may come from company-sponsored clinical trials or from a number of alternative sources, including studies initiated by investigators. To support marketing approval, the data submitted must be sufficient in quality and quantity to establish the safety, potency and purity of the biological product to the satisfaction of the FDA.

The fee required for the submission and review of an application under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, or PDUFA, is substantial (for example, for fiscal year 2023 this application fee is approximately $3.25 million), and the sponsor of an approved application is also subject to an annual program fee, currently more than $394,000 per eligible prescription product. These fees are typically adjusted annually, and exemptions and waivers may be available under certain circumstances, such as where a waiver is necessary to protect the public health, where the fee would present a significant barrier to innovation, or where the sponsor is a small business submitting its first human therapeutic application for review.

The FDA conducts a preliminary review of all applications within 60 calendar days of receipt and must inform the sponsor at that time or before whether an application is sufficiently complete to permit substantive review. In pertinent part, FDA’s regulations state that an application “shall not be considered as filed until all pertinent information and data have been received” by the FDA. In the event that FDA determines that an application does not satisfy this standard, it will issue a Refuse to File, or RTF, determination to the sponsor. Typically, an RTF will be based on administrative incompleteness, such as clear omission of information or sections of required information; scientific incompleteness, such as omission of critical data, information or analyses needed to evaluate safety and efficacy or provide adequate directions for use; or inadequate content, presentation, or organization of information such that substantive and meaningful review is precluded. The FDA may request additional information rather than accept an application for filing. In this event, the application must be resubmitted with the additional information. The resubmitted application is also subject to review before the FDA accepts it for filing.

After the submission is accepted for filing, the FDA begins an in-depth substantive review of the application. The FDA reviews the application to determine, among other things, whether the proposed product is safe and effective for its intended use, whether it has an acceptable purity profile and whether the product is being manufactured in accordance with cGMP. Under the goals and policies agreed to by the FDA under PDUFA, the FDA has ten months from the filing date in which to complete its initial review of a standard application that is a new molecular entity, and six months from the filing date for an application with “priority review”. The review process may be extended by the FDA for three additional months to consider new information or in the case of a clarification provided by the sponsor to address an outstanding deficiency identified by the FDA following the original submission. Despite these review goals, it is not uncommon for FDA review of an application to extend beyond the PDUFA goal date.

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In connection with its review of an application, the FDA will typically submit information requests to the sponsor and set deadlines for responses thereto. The FDA will also conduct a pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facilities for the new product to determine whether the manufacturing processes and facilities comply with cGMPs. The FDA will not approve the product unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities are in compliance with cGMP requirements and are adequate to assure consistent production of the product within required specifications.

The FDA also may inspect the sponsor and one or more clinical trial sites to assure compliance with IND and GCP requirements and the integrity of the clinical data submitted to the FDA. With passage of FDORA, Congress clarified FDA’s authority to conduct inspections by expressly permitting inspection of facilities involved in the preparation, conduct, or analysis of clinical and non-clinical studies submitted to FDA as well as other persons holding study records or involved in the study process. To ensure cGMP and GCP compliance by its employees and third-party contractors, a sponsor may incur significant expenditure of time, money and effort in the areas of training, record keeping, production and quality control.

Additionally, the FDA may refer an application, including applications for novel product candidates which present difficult questions of safety or efficacy, to an advisory committee for review, evaluation and recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. Typically, an advisory committee is a panel of independent experts, including clinicians and other scientific experts, that reviews, evaluates and provides a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. The FDA is not bound by the recommendations of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations when making final decisions on approval. Data from clinical trials are not always conclusive, and the FDA or its advisory committee may interpret data differently than the sponsor interprets the same data. The FDA may also re-analyze the clinical trial data, which could result in extensive discussions between the FDA and the sponsor during the review process.

The FDA also may require submission of a REMS, if it determines that a REMS is necessary to ensure that the benefits of the product outweigh its risks and to assure the safe use of the product. The REMS could include medication guides, physician communication plans, assessment plans and/or elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries or other risk minimization tools. The FDA determines the requirement for a REMS, as well as the specific REMS provisions, on a case-by-case basis. If the FDA concludes a REMS is needed, the sponsor of the application must submit a proposed REMS and the FDA will not approve the application without a REMS.

Decisions on BLAs

The FDA reviews a BLA to determine, among other things, whether the product is safe and whether it is effective for its intended use(s), with the latter determination being made on the basis of substantial evidence. The term “substantial evidence” is defined under the FDCA as “evidence consisting of adequate and well-controlled investigations, including clinical investigations, by experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the effectiveness of the product involved, on the basis of which it could fairly and responsibly be concluded by such experts that the product will have the effect it purports or is represented to have under the conditions of use prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling or proposed labeling thereof.”

The FDA has interpreted this evidentiary standard to require at least two adequate and well-controlled clinical investigations to establish effectiveness of a new product. Under certain circumstances, however, FDA has indicated that a single trial with certain characteristics and additional information may satisfy this standard. This approach was subsequently endorsed by Congress in 1998 with legislation providing, in pertinent part, that “If [FDA] determines, based on relevant science, that data from one adequate and well-controlled clinical investigation and confirmatory evidence (obtained prior to or after such investigation) are sufficient to establish effectiveness, FDA may consider such data and evidence to constitute substantial evidence.” This modification to the law recognized the potential for FDA to find that one adequate and well controlled clinical investigation with confirmatory evidence, including supportive data outside of a controlled trial, is sufficient to establish effectiveness. In December 2019, FDA issued draft guidance further explaining the studies that are needed to establish substantial evidence of effectiveness. It has not yet finalized that guidance.

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After evaluating the application and all related information, including the advisory committee recommendations, if any, and inspection reports of manufacturing facilities and clinical trial sites, the FDA will issue either a Complete Response Letter, or CRL, or an approval letter. To reach this determination, the FDA must determine that the investigational product is effective and that its expected benefits outweigh its potential risks to patients. This “benefit-risk” assessment is informed by the extensive body of evidence about the product’s safety and efficacy in the BLA. This assessment is also informed by other factors, including: the severity of the underlying condition and how well patients’ medical needs are addressed by currently available therapies; uncertainty about how the premarket clinical trial evidence will extrapolate to real-world use of the product in the post-market setting; and whether risk management tools are necessary to manage specific risks. In connection with this assessment, the FDA review team will assemble all individual reviews and other documents into an “action package,” which becomes the record for FDA review. The review team then issues a recommendation, and a senior FDA official makes a decision.

A CRL indicates that the review cycle of the application is complete, and the application will not be approved in its present form. A CRL generally outlines the deficiencies in the submission and may require substantial additional testing or information in order for the FDA to reconsider the application. The CRL may require additional clinical or other data, additional pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial(s) and/or other significant and time-consuming requirements related to clinical trials, preclinical studies or manufacturing. If a CRL is issued, the sponsor will have one year to respond to the deficiencies identified by the FDA, at which time the FDA can deem the application withdrawn or, in its discretion, grant the sponsor an additional six month extension to respond. The FDA has committed to reviewing resubmissions in response to an issued CRL in either two or six months depending on the type of information included. Even with the submission of this additional information, however, the FDA ultimately may decide that the application does not satisfy the regulatory criteria for approval. The FDA has taken the position that a CRL is not final agency action making the determination subject to judicial review.

An approval letter, on the other hand, authorizes commercial marketing of the product with specific prescribing information for specific indications. That is, the approval will be limited to the conditions of use (e.g., patient population, indication) described in the FDA-approved labeling. Further, depending on the specific risk(s) to be addressed, the FDA may require that contraindications, warnings or precautions be included in the product labeling, require that post-approval trials, including Phase 4 clinical trials, be conducted to further assess a product’s safety after approval, require testing and surveillance programs to monitor the product after commercialization or impose other conditions, including distribution and use restrictions or other risk management mechanisms under a REMS which can materially affect the potential market and profitability of the product. The FDA may prevent or limit further marketing of a product based on the results of post-marketing trials or surveillance programs. After approval, some types of changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications, manufacturing changes and additional labeling claims, are subject to further testing requirements and FDA review and approval.

Under the Ensuring Innovation Act, which was signed into law in April 2021, the FDA must publish action packages summarizing its decisions to approve new drugs and biologics within 30 days of approval of such products. To date, CRLs are not publicly available documents.

Post-Approval Regulation

If regulatory approval for marketing of a new product or new indication for an existing product is obtained, the sponsor will be required to comply with all regular post-approval regulatory requirements as well as any post-approval requirements that the FDA may have imposed as part of the approval process. The sponsor will be required to report, among other things, certain adverse reactions and manufacturing problems to the FDA, provide updated safety and efficacy information and comply with requirements concerning advertising and promotional labeling requirements. Manufacturers and certain of their subcontractors are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies, and are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and certain state agencies for compliance with ongoing regulatory requirements, including cGMP regulations, which impose certain procedural and documentation requirements upon manufacturers. Accordingly, the sponsor and its third-party manufacturers must continue to expend time, money and effort in the areas of production and quality control to maintain compliance with cGMP regulations and other regulatory requirements.

A product may also be subject to official lot release, meaning that the manufacturer is required to perform certain tests on each lot of the product before it is released for distribution. If the product is subject to official release, the

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manufacturer must submit samples of each lot, together with a release protocol showing a summary of the history of manufacture of the lot and the results of all of the manufacturer’s tests performed on the lot, to the FDA. The FDA may in addition perform certain confirmatory tests on lots of some products before releasing the lots for distribution. Finally, the FDA will conduct laboratory research related to the safety, purity, potency and effectiveness of pharmaceutical products.

Once an approval is granted, the FDA may withdraw the approval if compliance with regulatory requirements is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the market. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in revisions to the approved labeling to add new safety information; imposition of post-market studies or clinical trials to assess safety risks; or imposition of distribution or other restrictions under a REMS program. Other potential consequences include, among other things:

restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of the product, complete withdrawal of the product from the market or product recalls;
fines, warning letters or holds on post-approval clinical trials;
refusal of the FDA to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications, or suspension or revocation of product license approvals;
product seizure or detention, or refusal to permit the import or export of products; or
injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.

The FDA strictly regulates the marketing, labeling, advertising and promotion of prescription products placed on the market. This regulation includes, among other things, standards and regulations for direct-to-consumer advertising, communications regarding unapproved uses, industry-sponsored scientific and educational activities, and promotional activities involving the Internet and social media. Promotional claims about a product’s safety or effectiveness are prohibited before the product is approved. After approval, a product generally may not be promoted for uses that are not approved by the FDA, as reflected in the product’s prescribing information. In September 2021, the FDA published final regulations which describe the types of evidence that the FDA will consider in determining the intended use of a biologic. In the United States, health care professionals are generally permitted to prescribe products for such uses not described in the labeling, known as off-label uses, because the FDA does not regulate the practice of medicine.

It may be permissible, under very specific, narrow conditions, for a manufacturer to engage in nonpromotional, non-misleading communication regarding off-label information, such as distributing scientific or medical journal information , such as distributing scientific or medical journal information. Further, with passage of the Pre-Approval Information Exchange Act, or PIE Act, in December 2022, sponsors of products that have not been approved may proactively communicate to payors certain information about products in development to help expedite patient access upon product approval. Previously, such communications were permitted under FDA guidance but the new legislation explicitly provides protection to sponsors who convey certain information about products in development to payors, including unapproved uses of approved products.

If a company is found to have promoted off-label uses, it may become subject to adverse public relations and administrative and judicial enforcement by the FDA, the Department of Justice, or the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services, as well as state authorities. This could subject a company to a range of penalties that could have a significant commercial impact, including civil and criminal fines and agreements that materially restrict the manner in which a company promotes or distributes products. The federal government has levied large civil and criminal fines against companies for alleged improper promotion, and has also requested that companies enter into consent decrees or permanent injunctions under which specified promotional conduct is changed or curtailed.

In addition, the distribution of prescription pharmaceutical products is subject to the Prescription Drug Marketing Act, or PDMA, and its implementing regulations, as well as the Drug Supply Chain Security Act, or DSCA, which regulate the distribution and tracing of prescription drug samples at the federal level, and set minimum standards

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for the regulation of distributors by the states. The PDMA, its implementing regulations and state laws limit the distribution of prescription pharmaceutical product samples, and the DSCA imposes requirements to ensure accountability in distribution and to identify and remove counterfeit and other illegitimate products from the market.

Regulatory Exclusivity Governing Biologics

When a biological product is licensed for marketing by FDA with approval of a BLA, the product may be entitled to certain types of market and data exclusivity barring FDA from approving competing products for certain periods of time. In March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was enacted in the United States and included the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, or the BPCIA. The BPCIA amended the PHSA to create an abbreviated approval pathway for biological products that are biosimilar to or interchangeable with an FDA-licensed reference biological product. To date, the FDA has approved a number of biosimilars and the first interchangeable biosimilar product was approved on July 30, 2021 and a second product previously approved as a biosimilar was designated as interchangeable in October 2021. The FDA has also issued numerous guidance documents outlining its approach to reviewing and licensing biosimilars and interchangeable biosimilars under the PHSA, including a draft guidance issued in November 2020 that seeks to provide additional clarity to manufacturers of interchangeable biosimilars.

Under the BPCIA, a manufacturer may submit an application for a product that is “biosimilar to” a previously approved biological product, which the statute refers to as a “reference product.” In order for the FDA to approve a biosimilar product, it must find that there are no clinically meaningful differences between the reference product and the proposed biosimilar product in terms of safety, purity and potency. The biosimilar sponsor may demonstrate that its product is biosimilar to the reference product on the basis of data from analytical studies, animal studies and one or more clinical studies to demonstrate safety, purity and potency in one or more appropriate conditions of use for which the reference product is approved. In addition, the sponsor must show that the biosimilar and reference products have the same mechanism of action for the conditions of use on the label, route of administration, dosage and strength, and the production facility must meet standards designed to assure product safety, purity and potency.

For the FDA to approve a biosimilar product as interchangeable with a reference product, the FDA must find not only that the product is biosimilar to the reference product but also that it can be expected to produce the same clinical results as the reference product such that the two products may be switched without increasing safety risks or risks of diminished efficacy relative to exclusive use of the reference biologic. Upon licensure by the FDA, an interchangeable biosimilar may be substituted for the reference product without the intervention of the health care provider who prescribed the reference product. Following approval of the interchangeable biosimilar product, the FDA may not grant interchangeability status for any second biosimilar until one year after the first commercial marketing of the first interchangeable biosimilar product. In December 2022, Congress clarified through FDORA that FDA may approve multiple first interchangeable biosimilar biological products so long as the products are all approved on the first day on which such a product is approved as interchangeable with the reference product. 

A reference biological product is granted 12 years of exclusivity from the time of first licensure of the product, and the FDA will not accept an application for a biosimilar or interchangeable product based on the reference biological product until four years after the date of first licensure of the reference product. Even if a product is considered to be a reference product eligible for exclusivity, however, another company could market a competing version of that product if the FDA approves a full BLA for such product containing the sponsor’s own preclinical data and data from adequate and well-controlled clinical trials to demonstrate the safety, purity, and potency of their product. There have been recent government proposals to reduce the 12-year reference product exclusivity period, but none has been enacted to date. At the same time, since passage of the BPCIA, many states have passed laws or amendments to laws, which address pharmacy practices involving biosimilar products.

Pediatric Exclusivity

Pediatric exclusivity is another type of non-patent marketing exclusivity in the United States and, if granted, provides for the attachment of an additional six months of exclusivity. For biologic products, the six month period may be attached to any existing regulatory exclusivities but not to any patent terms. The conditions for pediatric exclusivity include the FDA’s determination that information relating to the use of a new product in the pediatric population may produce health benefits in that population, the FDA making a written request for pediatric clinical trials, and the sponsor agreeing to perform, and reporting on, the requested clinical trials within the statutory timeframe. This six-month

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exclusivity may be granted if a sponsor submits pediatric data that fairly respond to a written request from the FDA for such data. The data do not need to show the product to be effective in the pediatric population studied; rather, if the clinical trial is deemed to fairly respond to the FDA’s request, the additional protection is granted. If reports of requested pediatric studies are submitted to and accepted by the FDA within the statutory time limits, whatever statutory or regulatory periods of exclusivity or patents that cover the product are extended by six months. Although this is not a patent term extension, it effectively extends the regulatory period during which the FDA cannot approve another application. 

Orphan Drug Designation and Exclusivity

Orphan drug designation in the United States is designed to encourage sponsors to develop products intended for treatment of rare diseases or conditions. In the United States, a rare disease or condition is statutorily defined as a condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States or that affects more than 200,000 individuals in the United States and for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making available the product for the disease or condition will be recovered from sales of the product in the United States.

Orphan drug designation qualifies a company for tax credits and potentially market exclusivity for seven years following the date of the product’s approval if granted by the FDA. An application for designation as an orphan product can be made any time prior to the filing of an application for approval to market the product. A product becomes an orphan when it receives orphan drug designation from the Office of Orphan Products Development at the FDA based on acceptable confidential requests. The product must then go through the review and approval process like any other product.

A sponsor may request orphan drug designation of a previously unapproved product or new orphan indication for an already marketed product. In addition, a sponsor of a product that is otherwise the same product as an already approved orphan drug may seek and obtain orphan drug designation for the subsequent product for the same rare disease or condition if it can present a plausible hypothesis that its product may be clinically superior to the first approved product. More than one sponsor may receive orphan drug designation for the same product for the same rare disease or condition, but each sponsor seeking orphan drug designation must file a complete request for designation.

If a product with orphan designation receives the first FDA approval for the disease or condition for which it has such designation or for a select indication or use within the rare disease or condition for which it was designated, the product generally will receive orphan drug exclusivity. Orphan drug exclusivity means that the FDA may not approve another sponsor’s marketing application for the same product for the same disease or condition for seven years, except in certain limited circumstances. If a product designated as an orphan drug ultimately receives marketing approval for an indication broader than what was designated in its orphan drug application, it may not be entitled to exclusivity.

The period of market exclusivity begins on the date that the marketing application is approved by the FDA and applies only to the disease or condition for which the product has been designated. Orphan drug exclusivity will not bar approval of another product under certain circumstances, including if the company with orphan drug exclusivity is not able to meet market demand or the subsequent product is shown to be clinically superior to the approved product on the basis of greater efficacy or safety, or providing a major contribution to patient care. This is the case despite an earlier court opinion holding that the Orphan Drug Act unambiguously required the FDA to recognize orphan drug exclusivity regardless of a showing of clinical superiority. Under Omnibus legislation passed in December 2020, the requirement for a product to show clinical superiority applies to drug products that received orphan drug designation before enactment of amendments to the FDCA in 2017 but have not yet been approved by FDA.

In September 2021, the Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit held that, for the purpose of determining the scope of market exclusivity, the term “same disease or condition” in the statute means the designated “rare disease or condition” and could not be interpreted by the FDA to mean the “indication or use.” Thus, the court concluded, orphan drug exclusivity applies to the entire designated disease or condition rather than the “indication or use.” Although there have been legislative proposals to overrule this decision, they have not been enacted into law. On January 23, 2023, FDA announced that, in matters beyond the scope of that court order, FDA will continue to apply its existing regulations tying orphan-drug exclusivity to the uses or indications for which the orphan drug was approved.

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Patent Term Restoration and Extension

In the United States, a patent claiming a new product, its method of use or its method of manufacture may be eligible for a limited patent term extension under the Hatch-Waxman Act, which permits a patent extension of up to five years for patent term lost during product development and FDA regulatory review. Assuming grant of the patent for which the extension is sought, the restoration period for a patent covering a product is typically one-half the time between the effective date of the IND involving human beings is begun and the submission date of the BLA, plus the time between the submission date of the application and the ultimate approval date. Patent term restoration cannot be used to extend the remaining term of a patent past a total of 14 years from the product’s approval date in the United States. Only one patent applicable to an approved product is eligible for the extension, and the application for the extension must be submitted prior to the expiration of the patent for which extension is sought. A patent that covers multiple products for which approval is sought can only be extended in connection with one of the approvals. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office reviews and approves the application for any patent term extension or restoration in consultation with the FDA.

Companion Diagnostics

In August 2014, the FDA issued final guidance clarifying the requirements that will apply to approval of therapeutic products and in vitro companion diagnostics. According to the guidance, for novel drugs and biologics, a companion diagnostic device and its corresponding therapeutic should be approved or cleared contemporaneously by the FDA for the use indicated in the therapeutic product’s labeling.

Approval or clearance of the companion diagnostic device will ensure that the device has been adequately evaluated and has adequate performance characteristics in the intended population. In July 2016, the FDA issued a draft guidance intended to assist sponsors of the therapeutic product and in vitro companion diagnostic device on issues related to co-development of the products.

The 2014 guidance also explains that a companion diagnostic device used to make treatment decisions in clinical trials of a biologic product candidate generally will be considered an investigational device, unless it is employed for an intended use for which the device is already approved or cleared. If used to make critical treatment decisions, such as patient selection, the diagnostic device generally will be considered a significant risk device under the FDA’s Investigational Device Exemption, or IDE, regulations. Thus, the sponsor of the diagnostic device will be required to comply with the IDE regulations. According to the guidance, if a diagnostic device and a product are to be studied together to support their respective approvals, both products can be studied in the same investigational study, if the study meets both the requirements of the IDE regulations and the IND regulations. The guidance provides that depending on the details of the study plan and subjects, a sponsor may seek to submit an IND application alone, or both an IND and IDE application.

In April 2020, the FDA issued additional guidance which describes considerations for the development and labeling of companion diagnostic devices to support the indicated uses of multiple drug or biological oncology products, when appropriate. This guidance builds upon existing policy regarding the labeling of companion diagnostics. In its 2014 guidance, the FDA stated that if evidence is sufficient to conclude that the companion diagnostic is appropriate for use with a specific group of therapeutic products, the companion diagnostic’s intended use/indications for use should name the specific group of therapeutic products, rather than specific products. The 2020 guidance expands on the policy statement in the 2014 guidance by recommending that companion diagnostic developers consider a number of factors when determining whether their test could be developed, or the labeling for approved companion diagnostics could be revised through a supplement, to support a broader labeling claim such as use with a specific group of oncology therapeutic products (rather than listing an individual therapeutic product(s)). Under the FDCA, in vitro diagnostics, including companion diagnostics, are regulated as medical devices. In the United States, the FDCA and its implementing regulations, and other federal and state statutes and regulations govern, among other things, medical device design and development, preclinical and clinical testing, premarket clearance or approval, registration and listing, manufacturing, labeling, storage, advertising and promotion, sales and distribution, export and import, and post-market surveillance. Unless an exemption applies, diagnostic tests require pre-notification marketing clearance or approval from the FDA prior to commercial distribution.

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The FDA previously has required in vitro companion diagnostics intended to select the patients who will respond to the product candidate to obtain pre-market approval, or PMA, simultaneously with approval of the therapeutic product candidate. The PMA process, including the gathering of clinical and preclinical data and the submission to and review by the FDA, can take several years or longer. It involves a rigorous premarket review during which the sponsor must prepare and provide the FDA with reasonable assurance of the device’s safety and effectiveness and information about the device and its components regarding, among other things, device design, manufacturing and labeling. PMA applications are subject to an application fee. For federal fiscal year 2021, the standard fee is $374,858 and the small business fee is $93,714.

Healthcare Law and Regulation

Health care providers and third-party payors play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of drug products that are granted marketing approval. Arrangements with providers, consultants, third-party payors and customers are subject to broadly applicable fraud and abuse, anti-kickback, false claims laws, patient privacy laws and regulations and other health care laws and regulations that may constrain business and/or financial arrangements. Restrictions under applicable federal and state health care laws and regulations, include the following:

the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons and entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, paying, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation of, any good or service, for which payment may be made, in whole or in part, under a federal health care program such as Medicare and Medicaid;
the federal civil and criminal false claims laws, including the civil False Claims Act, and civil monetary penalties laws, which prohibit individuals or entities from, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the federal government, claims for payment that are false, fictitious or fraudulent or knowingly making, using or causing to made or used a false record or statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government.
the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which created additional federal criminal laws that prohibit, among other things, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any health care benefit program or making false statements relating to health care matters;
HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, and their respective implementing regulations, including the Final Omnibus Rule published in January 2013, which impose obligations, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information;
the federal false statements statute, which prohibits knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing ·or covering up a material fact or making any materially false statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for health care benefits, items or services;
the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, which prohibits companies and their intermediaries from making, or offering or promising to make improper payments to non-U.S. officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business or otherwise seeking favorable treatment;
the federal transparency requirements known as the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act, under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care Education Reconciliation Act, or the Affordable Care Act, which requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies to report annually to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, within the United States Department of Health and Human Services, information related to payments and other transfers of value made by that entity to physicians, other healthcare providers and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members; and

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analogous state and foreign laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to health care items or services that are reimbursed by non-government third-party payors, including private insurers.

Further, some state laws require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government in addition to requiring manufacturers to report information related to payments to physicians and other health care providers or marketing expenditures. Additionally, some state and local laws require the registration of pharmaceutical sales representatives in the jurisdiction. State and foreign laws also govern the privacy and security of health information in some circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Healthcare Reform

A primary trend in the U.S. healthcare industry and elsewhere is cost containment. There have been a number of federal and state proposals during the last few years regarding the pricing of drug and biologic products, limiting coverage and reimbursement for medical products and other changes to the healthcare system in the United States.

In March 2010, the United States Congress enacted the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, or collectively the ACA, which, among other things, includes changes to the coverage and payment for pharmaceutical products under government healthcare programs. Other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the ACA was enacted. In August 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, created measures for spending reductions by Congress. A Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, tasked with recommending a targeted deficit reduction of at least $1.2 trillion for the years 2013 through 2021, was unable to reach required goals, thereby triggering the legislation’s automatic reduction to several government programs. These changes included aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year, which went into effect in April 2013 and will remain in effect through 2031. Pursuant to the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, or CARES Act, and subsequent legislation, these Medicare sequester reductions were suspended and reduced through the end of June 2022, with the full 2% cut resuming thereafter.

Since enactment of the ACA, there have been, and continue to be, numerous legal challenges and Congressional actions to repeal and replace provisions of the law. For example, with enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, or the Tax Act, which was signed by President Trump on December 22, 2017, Congress repealed the “individual mandate.” The repeal of this provision, which requires most Americans to carry a minimal level of health insurance, became effective in 2019. On December 14, 2018, a U.S. District Court judge in the Northern District of Texas ruled that the individual mandate portion of the ACA is an essential and inseverable feature of the ACA, and therefore because the mandate was repealed as part of the Tax Act, the remaining provisions of the ACA are invalid as well. The U.S. Supreme Court dismissed this action after finding that the plaintiffs do not have standing to challenge the constitutionality of the ACA. Litigation and legislation over the ACA are likely to continue, with unpredictable and uncertain results.

The Trump Administration also took executive actions to undermine or delay implementation of the ACA, including directing federal agencies with authorities and responsibilities under the ACA to waive, defer, grant exemptions from, or delay the implementation of any provision of the ACA that would impose a fiscal or regulatory burden on states, individuals, healthcare providers, health insurers, or manufacturers of pharmaceuticals or medical devices. On January 28, 2021, however, President Biden rescinded those orders and issued a new executive order that directs federal agencies to reconsider rules and other policies that limit access to healthcare, and consider actions that will protect and strengthen that access. Under this order, federal agencies are directed to re-examine: policies that undermine protections for people with pre-existing conditions, including complications related to COVID-19; demonstrations and waivers under Medicaid and the ACA that may reduce coverage or undermine the programs, including work requirements; policies that undermine the Health Insurance Marketplace or other markets for health insurance; policies that make it more difficult to enroll in Medicaid and under the ACA; and policies that reduce affordability of coverage or financial assistance, including for dependents.

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Pharmaceutical Prices

The prices of prescription pharmaceuticals have also been the subject of considerable discussion in the United States. There have been several recent U.S. congressional inquiries, as well as proposed and enacted state and federal legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to pharmaceutical pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reduce the costs of pharmaceuticals under Medicare and Medicaid. In 2020, President Trump issued several executive orders intended to lower the costs of prescription products and certain provisions in these orders have been incorporated into regulations. These regulations include an interim final rule implementing a most favored nation model for prices that would tie Medicare Part B payments for certain physician-administered pharmaceuticals to the lowest price paid in other economically advanced countries, effective January 1, 2021. That rule, however, has been subject to a nationwide preliminary injunction and, on December 29, 2021, CMS issued a final rule to rescind it. With issuance of this rule, CMS stated that it will explore all options to incorporate value into payments for Medicare Part B pharmaceuticals and improve beneficiaries' access to evidence-based care.

In addition, in October 2020, the HHS and the FDA published a final rule allowing states and other entities to develop a Section 804 Importation Program, or SIP, to import certain prescription drugs from Canada into the United States. The final rule is currently the subject of ongoing litigation, but at least six states (Vermont, Colorado, Florida, Maine, New Mexico, and New Hampshire) have passed laws allowing for the importation of drugs from Canada with the intent of developing SIPs for review and approval by the FDA. Further, on November 20, 2020, HHS finalized a regulation removing safe harbor protection for price reductions from pharmaceutical manufacturers to plan sponsors under Part D, either directly or through pharmacy benefit managers, unless the price reduction is required by law. The implementation of the rule has been delayed by the Biden administration from January 1, 2022 to January 1, 2023 in response to ongoing litigation. The rule also creates a new safe harbor for price reductions reflected at the point-of-sale, as well as a new safe harbor for certain fixed fee arrangements between pharmacy benefit managers and manufacturers, the implementation of which has been delayed until January 1, 2026 by the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act.

On July 9, 2021, President Biden signed Executive Order 14063, which focuses on, among other things, the price of pharmaceuticals. The Order directs HHS to create a plan within 45 days to combat “excessive pricing of prescription pharmaceuticals and enhance domestic pharmaceutical supply chains, to reduce the prices paid by the federal government for such pharmaceuticals, and to address the recurrent problem of price gouging.” On September 9, 2021, HHS released its plan to reduce pharmaceutical prices. The key features of that plan are to: (1) make pharmaceutical prices more affordable and equitable for all consumers and throughout the health care system by supporting pharmaceutical price negotiations with manufacturers; (2) improve and promote competition throughout the prescription pharmaceutical industry by supporting market changes that strengthen supply chains, promote biosimilars and generic drugs, and increase transparency; and (3) foster scientific innovation to promote better healthcare and improve health by supporting public and private research and making sure that market incentives promote discovery of valuable and accessible new treatments.

More recently, on August 16, 2022, the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, or IRA, was signed into law by President Biden. The new legislation has implications for Medicare Part D, which is a program available to individuals who are entitled to Medicare Part A or enrolled in Medicare Part B to give them the option of paying a monthly premium for outpatient prescription drug coverage. Among other things, the IRA requires manufacturers of certain drugs to engage in price negotiations with Medicare (beginning in 2026), with prices that can be negotiated subject to a cap; imposes rebates under Medicare Part B and Medicare Part D to penalize price increases that outpace inflation (first due in 2023); and replaces the Part D coverage gap discount program with a new discounting program (beginning in 2025). The IRA permits the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services to implement many of these provisions through guidance, as opposed to regulation, for the initial years.

Specifically, with respect to price negotiations, Congress authorized Medicare to negotiate lower prices for certain costly single-source drug and biologic products that do not have competing generics or biosimilars and are reimbursed under Medicare Part B and Part D. CMS may negotiate prices for ten high-cost drugs paid for by Medicare Part D starting in 2026, followed by 15 Part D drugs in 2027, 15 Part B or Part D drugs in 2028 and 20 Part B or Part D drugs in 2029 and beyond. This provision applies to drug products that have been approved for at least 9 years and biologics that have been licensed for 13 years, but it does not apply to drugs and biologics that have been approved for a single rare disease or condition. Further, the legislation subjects drug manufacturers to civil monetary penalties and a

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potential excise tax for failing to comply with the legislation by offering a price that is not equal to or less than the negotiated “maximum fair price” under the law or for taking price increases that exceed inflation. The legislation also requires manufacturers to pay rebates for drugs in Medicare Part D whose price increases exceed inflation. The new law also caps Medicare out-of-pocket drug costs at an estimated $4,000 a year in 2024 and, thereafter beginning in 2025, at 2,000 a year.

At the state level, individual states are increasingly aggressive in passing legislation and implementing regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. A number of states, for example, require drug manufacturers and other entities in the drug supply chain, including health carriers, pharmacy benefit managers, wholesale distributors, to disclose information about pricing of pharmaceuticals. In addition, regional healthcare organizations and individual hospitals are increasingly using bidding procedures to determine what pharmaceutical products and which suppliers will be included in their prescription pharmaceutical and other healthcare programs. These measures could reduce the ultimate demand for our products, once approved, or put pressure on our product pricing. We expect that additional state and federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for healthcare products and services, which could result in reduced demand for our product candidates or additional pricing pressures.

Federal and State Data Privacy Laws

There are multiple privacy and data security laws that may impact our business activities, in the United States and in other countries where we conduct trials or where we may do business in the future. These laws are evolving and may increase both our obligations and our regulatory risks in the future. In the health care industry generally, under the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, HHS has issued regulations to protect the privacy and security of protected health information, or PHI, used or disclosed by covered entities including certain healthcare providers, health plans and healthcare clearinghouses. HIPAA also regulates standardization of data content, codes and formats used in healthcare transactions and standardization of identifiers for health plans and providers. HIPAA also imposes certain obligations on the business associates of covered entities that obtain protected health information in providing services to or on behalf of covered entities. HIPAA may apply to us in certain circumstances and may also apply to our business partners in ways that may impact our relationships with them. Our clinical trials are regulated by the Common Rule, which also includes specific privacy-related provisions. In addition to federal privacy regulations, there are a number of state laws governing confidentiality and security of health information that may be applicable to our business. In addition to possible federal civil and criminal penalties for HIPAA violations, state attorneys general are authorized to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce HIPAA and seek attorney’s fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions. In addition, state attorneys general (along with private plaintiffs) have brought civil actions seeking injunctions and damages resulting from alleged violations of HIPAA’s privacy and security rules. State attorneys general also have authority to enforce state privacy and security laws. New laws and regulations governing privacy and security may be adopted in the future as well.

In 2018, California passed into law the California Consumer Privacy Act, or CCPA, which took effect on January 1, 2020 and imposed many requirements on businesses that process the personal information of California residents. Many of the CCPA’s requirements are similar to those found in the General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, in Europe, including requiring businesses to provide notice to data subjects regarding the information collected about them and how such information is used and shared, and providing data subjects the right to request access to such personal information and, in certain cases, request the erasure of such personal information. The CCPA also affords California residents the right to opt-out of “sales” of their personal information. The CCPA contains significant penalties for companies that violate its requirements. In November 2020, California voters passed a ballot initiative for the California Privacy Rights Act, or CPRA, which went into effect on January 1, 2023 and significantly expanded the CCPA to incorporate additional GDPR-like provisions including requiring that the use, retention and sharing of personal information of California residents be reasonably necessary and proportionate to the purposes of collection or processing, granting additional protections for sensitive personal information, and requiring greater disclosures related to notice to residents regarding retention of information. The CPRA also created a new enforcement agency – the California Privacy Protection Agency – whose sole responsibility is to enforce the CPRA, which will further increase compliance risk. The provisions in the CPRA may apply to some of our business activities. In addition, other states, including Virginia, Colorado, Utah and Connecticut already have passed state privacy laws. Virginia’s privacy law also

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went into effect on January 1, 2023, and the laws in the other three states will go into effect later in the year. Other states will be considering these laws in the future, and Congress has also been debating passing a federal privacy law. These laws may impact our business activities, including our identification of research subjects, relationships with business partners and ultimately the marketing and distribution of our products.

Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors available under such laws, it is possible that some of our current or future business activities, including certain clinical research, sales and marketing practices and the provision of certain items and services to our customers, could be subject to challenge under one or more of such privacy and data security laws. The heightening compliance environment and the need to build and maintain robust and secure systems to comply with different privacy compliance and/or reporting requirements in multiple jurisdictions could increase the possibility that a healthcare company may fail to comply fully with one or more of these requirements. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the privacy or data security laws or regulations described above that are applicable to us, or any other laws that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including potentially significant criminal, civil and administrative penalties, damages, fines, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, additional reporting requirements and/or oversight if we become subject to a consent decree or similar agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations. To the extent that any product candidates we may develop, once approved, are sold in a foreign country, we may be subject to similar foreign laws.

Review and Approval of Medical Products in the European Union

In order to market any product outside of the United States, a company must also comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements of other countries and jurisdictions regarding quality, safety and efficacy and governing, among other things, clinical trials, marketing authorization, commercial sales and distribution of products. Whether or not it obtains FDA approval for a product, a sponsor will need to obtain the necessary approvals by the comparable non-U.S. regulatory authorities before it can commence clinical trials or marketing of the product in those countries or jurisdictions. Specifically, the process governing approval of medicinal products in the European Union, or EU, generally follows the same lines as in the United States. It entails satisfactory completion of preclinical studies and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials to establish the safety and efficacy of the product for each proposed indication. It also requires the submission to the relevant competent authorities of a marketing authorization application, or MAA, and granting of a marketing authorization by these authorities before the product can be marketed and sold in the EU.

Clinical Trial Approval

On January 31, 2022, the new Clinical Trials Regulation (EU) No 536/2014 became effective in the European Union and replaced the prior Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC. The new regulation aims at simplifying and streamlining the authorization, conduct and transparency of clinical trials in the European Union. Under the new coordinated procedure for the approval of clinical trials, the sponsor of a clinical trial to be conducted in more than one Member State of the European Union, or EU Member State, will only be required to submit a single application for approval. The submission will be made through the Clinical Trials Information System, a new clinical trials portal overseen by the EMA and available to clinical trial sponsors, competent authorities of the EU Member States and the public.

The main characteristics of the new Clinical Trials Regulation include: a single set of documents to be prepared and submitted for the application as well as simplified reporting procedures for clinical trial sponsors; and a harmonized procedure for the assessment of applications for clinical trials, which is divided in two parts. Part I is assessed by the competent authorities of all EU Member States in which an application for authorization of a clinical trial has been submitted (Member States concerned). Part II is assessed separately by each Member State concerned. Strict deadlines have been established for the assessment of clinical trial applications. The role of the relevant ethics committees in the assessment procedure will continue to be governed by the national law of the concerned EU Member State. However, overall related timelines will be defined by the Clinical Trials Regulation.

The new regulation did not change the preexisting requirement that a sponsor must obtain prior approval from the competent national authority of the EU Member State in which the clinical trial is to be conducted. If the clinical trial

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is conducted in different EU Member States, the competent authorities in each of these EU Member States must provide their approval for the conduct of the clinical trial. Furthermore, the sponsor may only start a clinical trial at a specific study site after the applicable ethics committee has issued a favorable opinion.

Parties conducting certain clinical trials must, as in the United States, post clinical trial information in the EU at the EudraCT website: https://eudract.ema.europa.eu.

PRIME Designation in the EU

In March 2016, the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, launched an initiative to facilitate development of product candidates in indications, often rare, for which few or no therapies currently exist. The PRIority MEdicines, or PRIME, scheme is intended to encourage drug development in areas of unmet medical need and provides accelerated assessment of products representing substantial innovation reviewed under the centralized procedure. Products from small- and medium-sized enterprises, or SMEs, may qualify for earlier entry into the PRIME scheme than larger companies. Many benefits accrue to sponsors of product candidates with PRIME designation, including but not limited to, early and proactive regulatory dialogue with the EMA, frequent discussions on clinical trial designs and other development program elements, and accelerated marketing authorization application assessment once a dossier has been submitted. Importantly, a dedicated Agency contact and rapporteur from the Committee for Human Medicinal Products (CHMP) or Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) are appointed early in PRIME scheme facilitating increased understanding of the product at EMA’s Committee level.

Pediatric Studies

Companies developing a new medicinal product must agree upon a Pediatric Investigation Plan, or PIP, with the EMA’s pediatric committee, or PDCO, and must conduct pediatric clinical trials in accordance with that PIP, unless a waiver applies (e.g., because the relevant disease or condition occurs only in adults). The PIP sets out the timing and measures proposed to generate data to support a pediatric indication of the drug for which marketing authorization is being sought. The marketing authorization application for the product must include the results of pediatric clinical trials conducted in accordance with the PIP, unless a waiver applies, or a deferral has been granted by the PDCO of the obligation to implement some or all of the measures of the PIP until there are sufficient data to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of the product in adults, in which case the pediatric clinical trials must be completed at a later date.

Marketing Authorization

Marketing authorization applications, or MAAs, can be filed either under the so-called centralized or national authorization procedures, albeit through the Mutual Recognition or Decentralized procedure for a product to be authorized in more than one EU member state.

The centralized procedure provides for the grant of a single marketing authorization following a favorable opinion by the EMA that is valid in all EU Member States, as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, which are part of the EEA. The centralized procedure is compulsory for medicines produced by specified biotechnological processes, products designated as orphan medicinal products, advanced-therapy medicines (such as gene-therapy, somatic cell-therapy or tissue-engineered medicines) and products with a new active substance indicated for the treatment of specified diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders or autoimmune diseases and other immune dysfunctions and viral diseases. The centralized procedure is optional for products that represent a significant therapeutic, scientific or technical innovation, or whose authorization would be in the interest of public health. Under the centralized procedure, the maximum timeframe for the evaluation of an MAA by the EMA is 210 days, excluding clock stops, when additional written or oral information is to be provided by the sponsor in response to questions asked by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use, or the CHMP. Accelerated assessment might be granted by the CHMP in exceptional cases, when a medicinal product is expected to be of a major public health interest, particularly from the point of view of therapeutic innovation. The timeframe for the evaluation of an MAA under the accelerated assessment procedure is 150 days, excluding stop-clocks.

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There are also two other possible routes to authorize medicinal products in several EU countries, which are available for investigational medicinal products that fall outside the scope of the centralized procedure:

Decentralized procedure. Using the decentralized procedure, a sponsor may apply for simultaneous authorization in more than one EU country of medicinal products that have not yet been authorized in any EU country and that do not fall within the mandatory scope of the centralized procedure. The sponsor may choose a member state as the reference member State to lead the scientific evaluation of the application.
Mutual recognition procedure. In the mutual recognition procedure, a medicine is first authorized in one EU Member State (which acts as the reference member state), in accordance with the national procedures of that country. Following this, further marketing authorizations can be progressively sought from other EU countries in a procedure whereby the countries concerned agree to recognize the validity of the original, national marketing authorization produced by the reference member state.

Under the above-described procedures, before granting the marketing authorization, the EMA or the competent authorities of the Member States of the EEA make an assessment of the risk-benefit balance of the product on the basis of scientific criteria concerning its quality, safety and efficacy.

Conditional Approval

In particular circumstances, E.U. legislation (Article 14–a Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 (as amended by Regulation (EU) 2019/5 and Regulation (EC) No 507/2006 on Conditional Marketing Authorizations for Medicinal Products for Human Use) enables sponsors to obtain a “conditional marketing authorization” prior to obtaining the comprehensive clinical data required for an application for a full marketing authorization. Such conditional approvals may be granted for product candidates (including medicines designated as orphan medicinal products), if (1) the product candidate is intended for the treatment, prevention or medical diagnosis of seriously debilitating or life-threatening disease; (2) the product candidate is intended to meet unmet medical needs of the patients; (3) a marketing authorization may be granted prior to submission of comprehensive clinical data provided that the benefit of the immediate availability on the market of the medicinal product concerned outweighs the risk inherent in the fact that additional data are still required; (4) the risk-benefit balance of the product candidate is positive, and (5) it is likely that the sponsor will be in a position to provide the required comprehensive clinical trial data. A conditional marketing authorization may contain specific obligations to be fulfilled by the marketing authorization holder, including obligations with respect to the completion of ongoing or new studies, and with respect to the collection of pharmacovigilance data. Conditional marketing authorizations are valid for one year, and may be renewed annually, if the risk-benefit balance remains positive, and after an assessment of the need for additional or modified conditions or specific obligations. The timelines for the centralized procedure described above also apply with respect to the review by the CHMP of applications for a conditional marketing authorization, but sponsors can also request EMA to conduct an accelerated assessment, for instance, in cases of unmet medical needs.

Periods of Authorization and Renewals

A marketing authorization has an initial validity for five years in principle. The marketing authorization may be renewed after five years on the basis of a re-evaluation of the risk-benefit balance by the EMA or by the competent authority of the EU Member State. To this end, the marketing authorization holder must provide the EMA or the competent authority with a consolidated version of the file in respect of quality, safety and efficacy, including all variations introduced since the marketing authorization was granted, at least six months before the marketing authorization ceases to be valid. The European Commission or the competent authorities of the EU Member States may decide, on justified grounds relating to pharmacovigilance, to proceed with one further five-year period of marketing authorization. Once subsequently definitively renewed, the marketing authorization shall be valid for an unlimited period. Any authorization which is not followed by the actual placing of the medicinal product on the EU n market (in

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case of centralized procedure) or on the market of the authorizing EU Member State within three years after authorization ceases to be valid (the so-called sunset clause).

Regulatory Requirements after a Marketing Authorization has been Obtained

In case an authorization for a medicinal product in the EU is obtained, the holder of the marketing authorization is required to comply with a range of requirements applicable to the manufacturing, marketing, promotion and sale of medicinal products. These include:

Compliance with the EU’s stringent pharmacovigilance or safety reporting rules must be ensured. These rules can impose post-authorization studies and additional monitoring obligations.
The manufacturing of authorized medicinal products, for which a separate manufacturer’s license is mandatory, must also be conducted in strict compliance with the applicable EU laws, regulations and guidance, including Directive 2001/83/EC, Directive 2003/94/EC, Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 and the European Commission Guidelines for Good Manufacturing Practice. These requirements include compliance with EU cGMP standards when manufacturing medicinal products and active pharmaceutical ingredients, including the manufacture of active pharmaceutical ingredients outside of the EU with the intention to import the active pharmaceutical ingredients into the EU.
The marketing and promotion of authorized drugs, including industry-sponsored continuing medical education and advertising directed toward the prescribers of drugs and/or the general public, are strictly regulated in the EU notably under Directive 2001/83EC, as amended, and EU Member State laws. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines is prohibited across the EU.

Regulatory Data Protection in the EU

In the EU, innovative medicinal products approved on the basis of a complete independent data package qualify for eight years of data exclusivity upon marketing authorization and an additional two years of market exclusivity pursuant to Directive 2001/83/EC. Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 repeats this entitlement for medicinal products authorized in accordance the centralized authorization procedure. Data exclusivity prevents sponsors for authorization of generics of these innovative products from referencing the innovator’s data to assess a generic (abridged) application for a period of eight years. During an additional two-year period of market exclusivity, a generic marketing authorization application can be submitted and authorized, and the innovator’s data may be referenced, but no generic medicinal product can be placed on the EU market until the expiration of the market exclusivity. The overall ten-year period will be extended to a maximum of 11 years if, during the first eight years of those ten years, the marketing authorization holder obtains an authorization for one or more new therapeutic indications which, during the scientific evaluation prior to their authorization, are held to bring a significant clinical benefit in comparison with existing therapies. Even if a compound is considered to be a new chemical entity so that the innovator gains the prescribed period of data exclusivity, another company nevertheless could also market another version of the product if such company obtained marketing authorization based on an MAA with a complete independent data package of pharmaceutical tests, preclinical tests and clinical trials.

Pediatric Exclusivity

If a sponsor obtains a marketing authorization in all EU Member States, or a marketing authorization granted in the centralized procedure by the European Commission, and the study results for the pediatric population are included in the product information, even when negative, the medicine is then eligible for an additional six-month period of qualifying patent protection through extension of the term of the Supplementary Protection Certificate, or SPC, or alternatively a one year extension of the regulatory market exclusivity from ten to eleven years, as selected by the marketing authorization holder.

Orphan Drug Designation and Exclusivity

Regulation (EC) No. 141/2000, as implemented by Regulation (EC) No. 847/2000 provides that a drug can be designated as an orphan drug by the European Commission if its sponsor can establish: that the product is intended for

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the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of (1) a life-threatening or chronically debilitating condition affecting not more than five in ten thousand persons in the EU when the application is made, or (2) a life-threatening, seriously debilitating or serious and chronic condition in the EU and that without incentives it is unlikely that the marketing of the drug in the EU would generate sufficient return to justify the necessary investment. For either of these conditions, the sponsor must demonstrate that there exists no satisfactory method of diagnosis, prevention or treatment of the condition in question that has been authorized in the EU or, if such method exists, the drug will be of significant benefit to those affected by that condition.

Once authorized, orphan medicinal products are entitled to 10 years of market exclusivity in all EU Member States and in addition a range of other benefits during the development and regulatory review process including scientific assistance for study protocols, authorization through the centralized marketing authorization procedure covering all member countries and a reduction or elimination of registration and marketing authorization fees. However, marketing authorization may be granted to a similar medicinal product with the same orphan indication during the 10-year period with the consent of the marketing authorization holder for the original orphan medicinal product or if the manufacturer of the original orphan medicinal product is unable to supply sufficient quantities. Marketing authorization may also be granted to a similar medicinal product with the same orphan indication if this product is safer, more effective or otherwise clinically superior to the original orphan medicinal product. The period of market exclusivity may, in addition, be reduced to six years if it can be demonstrated on the basis of available evidence that the original orphan medicinal product is sufficiently profitable not to justify maintenance of market exclusivity.

Patent Term Extensions

The European Union also provides for patent term extension through Supplementary Protection Certificates, or SPCs. The rules and requirements for obtaining a SPC are similar to those in the United States. An SPC may extend the term of a patent for up to five years after its originally scheduled expiration date and can provide up to a maximum of fifteen years of marketing exclusivity for a drug. In certain circumstances, these periods may be extended for six additional months if pediatric exclusivity is obtained. Although SPCs are available throughout the European Union, sponsors must apply on a country-by-country basis. Similar patent term extension rights exist in certain other foreign jurisdictions outside the European Union.

Reimbursement and Pricing of Prescription Pharmaceuticals

In the EU, similar political, economic and regulatory developments to those in the United States may affect our ability to profitably commercialize our product candidates, if approved. In markets outside of the U.S. and the EU, reimbursement and healthcare payment systems vary significantly by country and many countries have instituted price ceilings on specific products and therapies. In many countries, including those of the EU, the pricing of prescription pharmaceuticals is subject to governmental control and access. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after the receipt of marketing approval for a product. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, pharmaceutical firms may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of the product to other available therapies.

General Data Protection Regulation

Many countries outside of the United States maintain rigorous laws governing the privacy and security of personal information. The collection, use, disclosure, transfer, or other processing of personal data , including personal health data, regarding individuals who are located in the EEA, and the processing of personal data that takes place in the EEA, is subject to the GDPR, which became effective on May 25, 2018. The GDPR is wide-ranging in scope and imposes numerous requirements on companies that process personal data, and it imposes heightened requirements on companies that process health and other sensitive data, such as requiring in many situations that a company obtain the consent of the individuals to whom the sensitive personal data relate before processing such data. Examples of obligations imposed by the GDPR on companies processing personal data that fall within the scope of the GDPR include providing information to individuals regarding data processing activities, implementing safeguards to protect the security and confidentiality of personal data, appointing a data protection officer, providing notification of data breaches, and taking certain measures when engaging third-party processors.

The GDPR also imposes strict rules on the transfer of personal data to countries outside the EEA, including the United States, and permits data protection authorities to impose large penalties for violations of the GDPR, including potential fines of up to €20 million or 4% of annual global revenues, whichever is greater. The GDPR also confers a private right of action on data subjects and consumer associations to lodge complaints with supervisory authorities, seek

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judicial remedies, and obtain compensation for damages resulting from violations of the GDPR. Compliance with the GDPR is a rigorous and time-intensive process that may increase the cost of doing business or require companies to change their business practices to ensure full compliance. In July 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union, or the Court of Justice of the European Union, or CJEU, invalidated the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield framework, one of the mechanisms used to legitimize the transfer of personal data from the EEA to the United States. The CJEU decision also drew into question the long-term viability of an alternative means of data transfer, the standard contractual clauses, for transfers of personal data from the EEA to the United States. Following the withdrawal of the U.K. from the EU, the U.K. Data Protection Act 2018 applies to the processing of personal data that takes place in the U.K. and includes parallel obligations to those set forth by GDPR.

Additionally, in October 2022, President Biden signed an executive order to implement the EU-U.S. Data Privacy Framework, which would serve as a replacement to the EU-US Privacy Shield. The European Commission initiated the process to adopt an adequacy decision for the EU-US Data Privacy Framework in December 2022. It is unclear if and when the framework will be finalized and whether it will be challenged in court.

Human Capital

Our ability to sustain and grow our business requires us to hire, retain and develop a highly skilled workforce. As of December 31, 2022, we had a total of 34 full time employees. We continually evaluate our business needs and opportunities and balance in-house expertise and capacity with outsourced expertise and capacity.

Recruiting, motivating and retaining qualified employees is critical to our success. We monitor our compensation programs and aim to provide our employees a competitive mix of cash compensation and medical insurance benefits, as well as the opportunity to participate in our equity programs. We believe that our philosophy of providing competitive compensation, along with opportunities for career growth and development, encourages a high level of corporate employee tenure and low level of voluntary turnover. A large majority of our employees have obtained advanced degrees in their professions. Our employees are supported with training and development opportunities to pursue their careers and to ensure compliance with our policies. None of our employees are represented by labor unions or covered by collective bargaining agreements. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good.

We value the health, safety and wellbeing of our employees and their families. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have implemented significant changes that we determined were in the best interest of our employees, as well as the communities in which we operate, and which comply with government regulations. This includes allowing our corporate employees to work remotely.

Our Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in July 2009. Our website address is www.kalarx.com. The information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K and should not be considered to be a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our website address is included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as an inactive technical reference only.

Available Information

Through our website, we make available free of charge our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act. We make these reports available through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such reports with, or furnish such reports to, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. You can review our electronically filed reports and other information that we file with the SEC on the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov. We also make available, free of charge on our website, the reports filed with the SEC by our executive officers, directors and 10% stockholders pursuant to Section 16 under the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after copies of those filings are provided to us by those persons. In addition, we regularly use our website to post information regarding our business, product development programs and governance, and we encourage investors to use our website, particularly the information in the section entitled “Investors,” as a source of information about us.

The information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K and should not be considered to be a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our website address is included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as an inactive technical reference only.

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Item 1A      Risk Factors

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below together with all of the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our financial statements and the related notes appearing at the end of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, before deciding to invest in our common stock. These risks, some of which have occurred and any of which may occur in the future, can have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. In such event, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you might lose all or part of your investment. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we presently deem less significant may also impair our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition.

Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Need for Additional Capital

We have incurred significant losses from operations and negative cash flows from operations since our inception. We expect to incur additional losses and may never achieve or maintain profitability.

Since inception, we have incurred significant losses from operations and negative cash flows from operations. Our net losses were $44.8 million and $142.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. As of December 31, 2022, we had an accumulated deficit of $587.2 million. Prior to the sale of our commercial business to Alcon Pharmaceuticals Ltd. And Alcon Vision, LLC, or collectively Alcon, in July 2022, we generated only limited revenues from sales of EYSUVIS and INVELTYS. We have financed our operations primarily through proceeds from the sale of our commercial business to Alcon in July 2022, our initial public offering, follow-on public offerings of common stock and sales under our at-the-market offering facilities, private placements of common stock and preferred stock, borrowings under credit facilities and the Loan and Security Agreement with Oxford Finance LLC, or the Loan Agreement, convertible promissory notes and warrants. We have devoted substantially all of our financial resources and efforts to research and development, including preclinical studies and clinical trials, and prior to the sale of our commercial business to Alcon in July 2022, engaging in activities to launch and commercialize EYSUVIS and INVELTYS. As of result of the acquisition of Combangio in November 2021, or the Combangio Acquisition, and the sale of our commercial business to Alcon, we are devoting, and intend to continue to devote, substantial financial resources to the research and development and potential commercialization of KPI-012, our product candidate in clinical development for the treatment of persistent corneal epithelial defects, or PCED, and any other indications we determine to pursue. We have no revenue-generating commercial products, our cash flows have diminished as a result of the sale of our commercial business to Alcon and, as a result of our acquisition of Combangio, we may be required to pay certain milestones and royalty payments to former equityholders of Combangio.Although we are eligible to receive up to $325.0 million in payments from Alcon based upon the achievement of specified commercial sales-based milestones with respect to EYSUVIS and INVELTYS, there can be no assurance as to when we may receive such milestone payments or of the amount of milestone payments we may receive, if any. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses for the foreseeable future, including in connection with our continued development, regulatory approval efforts and commercialization, if any, of KPI-012. We may never achieve or maintain profitability. Our net losses may fluctuate significantly from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year.

We anticipate that our research and development expenses will increase substantially in the future as compared to prior periods as we advance the clinical development of KPI-012. Our research and development expenses will also increase in the future as we conduct any necessary preclinical studies and clinical trials and other development activities for any other product candidates we may develop in the future, including our ongoing preclinical studies under our KPI-014 program, which is a mesenchymal secretome formulation that is in preclinical development for the treatment of inherited retinal degenerative diseases, such as Retinitis Pigmentosa and Stargardt Disease. If we obtain marketing approval for KPI-012 or any product candidates we may develop, we expect that our selling, general and administrative expenses will increase substantially if and as we incur commercialization expenses related to product marketing, sales and distribution.

Our expenses will also increase if and as we:

continue the clinical development of KPI-012 for PCED;

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initiate and continue the research and development of KPI-012 for additional indications, including initiating and conducting clinical trials;
scale up our manufacturing processes and capabilities to manufacture the clinical supply of KPI-012;
seek regulatory approval for KPI-012 for PCED in the United States and other jurisdictions;
seek regulatory approval for KPI-012 for additional indications;
grow our sales, marketing and distribution capabilities in connection with the commercialization of any product candidates for which we may submit for and obtain marketing approval;
initiate and progress any preclinical development programs under our mesenchymal stem cell secretome, or MSC-S platform, including from our KPI-014 program;
conduct clinical trials and other development activities and/or seek marketing approval for any product candidates we may develop in the future;
in-license or acquire the rights to other products, product candidates or technologies;
maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio;
hire additional clinical, quality control, scientific, manufacturing, commercial and management personnel to support our operations;
expand our operational, financial and management systems; and
increase our product liability insurance coverage if we initiate commercialization efforts for our product candidates.

Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with pharmaceutical product development, we are unable to accurately predict the timing or amount of increased expenses or when, or if, we will be able to achieve profitability. Our expenses will increase from what we anticipate if:

we elect or are required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, or non-U.S. regulatory agencies to perform clinical trials or studies in addition to those expected;
there are any delays in enrollment of patients in or completing our clinical trials or the development of our product candidates;
we in-license or acquire rights to other products, product candidates or technologies; or
there are any third-party challenges to our intellectual property portfolio, or the need arises to defend against intellectual property-related claims or enforce our intellectual property rights.

Our ability to become and remain profitable depends on our ability to generate revenue. We do not expect to generate revenue from KPI-012 or any other product candidate we may develop for the foreseeable future, if at all. Achieving and maintaining profitability will require us to be successful in a range of challenging activities, including:

completing the clinical development of KPI-012 for PCED and any other indications we determine to pursue;
subject to obtaining favorable results from our ongoing and planned clinical trials of KPI-012, applying for and obtaining marketing approval of KPI-012;

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successfully commercializing KPI-012, if approved;
discovering, developing and successfully seeking marketing approval and commercialization of any additional product candidates we may develop in the future, including under our KPI-014 program;
hiring and building a full commercial organization required for marketing, selling and distributing those products for which we obtain marketing approval;
manufacturing at commercial scale, marketing, selling and distributing those products for which we obtain marketing approval;
achieving an adequate level of market acceptance, and obtaining and maintaining coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors for any products we commercialize;
obtaining, maintaining and protecting our intellectual property rights; and
adapting our business in response to the pandemic health event resulting from COVID-19 and its collateral consequences.

As a company, we have limited experience commercializing products, and we may not be able to commercialize a product successfully in the future. There are numerous examples of unsuccessful product launches and failures to meet expectations of market potential, including by pharmaceutical companies with more experience and resources than us.

We may never succeed in the foregoing activities and we may never generate revenue that is sufficient to achieve profitability. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would decrease the value of our company and could impair our ability to raise capital, expand our business, maintain our research and development efforts, diversify our product offerings or even continue our operations. A decline in the value of our company could also cause you to lose all or part of your investment.

Our limited operating history and our limited experience in developing biologics may make it difficult for you to evaluate the success of our business to date and to assess our future viability.

Our operations to date have been limited to organizing and staffing our company, acquiring rights to intellectual property, business planning, raising capital, conducting research and development activities, and prior to the sale of our commercial business to Alcon in July 2022, developing and commercially launching EYSUVIS and INVELTYS. While we have had experience with obtaining marketing approval for and commercially launching two commercial products, we no longer have any commercial products following the sale of our commercial business to Alcon, we have only one product candidate in clinical development and we cannot be certain that we will be able to develop, obtain marketing approval for and commercialize a product in the future. If we are successful in developing and obtaining marketing approval for KPI-012 or any product candidate we may develop in the future, we will again have to transition from a company with a research and development focus to company capable of supporting commercial activity. We may not be successful in such a transition. In addition, prior to our acquisition of KPI-012 in November 2021, we had no prior experience developing biological product candidates. As such, we may encounter delays or difficulties in our efforts to develop and commercialize KPI-012.

Consequently, any predictions you make about our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had prior experience developing biological product candidates or a longer operating and commercialization history.

We expect our financial condition and operating results to fluctuate significantly from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year due to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. Accordingly, you should not rely upon the results of any quarterly or annual periods as indications of future operating performance.

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We will need substantial additional funding. If we are unable to raise capital when needed, we could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our product development efforts.

We expect to devote substantial financial resources to our ongoing and planned activities, particularly as we conduct research and development activities, and initiate clinical trials of, and seek regulatory approval for, KPI-012 and any other product candidate that we develop in the future. If we do obtain regulatory approval for KPI-012 or any other product candidate that we develop, we expect to incur commercialization expenses related to product sales, marketing, distribution and manufacturing capabilities. Accordingly, we will need to obtain substantial additional funding in connection with our continuing operations. If we are unable to raise capital when needed or on attractive terms, we could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our research and development programs or any future commercialization efforts.

Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:

the timing and amount of milestone payments we ultimately receive from Alcon under the asset purchase agreement;
the timing and amount of our future milestone payments to Combangio equityholders under the merger agreement;
the progress, costs and results of our ongoing and planned clinical trials of KPI-012;
the costs and timing of process development and manufacturing scale-up activities associated with KPI-012 for PCED and any other indications we determine to pursue;
the costs, timing and outcome of regulatory review of KPI-012;
the costs and timing of commercialization activities for KPI-012, if approved, including establishing product sales, marketing, medical affairs, distribution and outsourced manufacturing capabilities;
our ability to successfully commercialize KPI-012, if approved, in the United States and other jurisdictions and the amount of revenue received from commercial sales;
our ability to establish and maintain strategic collaborations, licensing or other agreements and the financial terms of such agreements;
the scope, progress, results and costs of research and development of any other product candidates that we may develop, including under our KPI-014 program;
the extent to which we successfully advance and/or in-license or acquire rights to other products, product candidates or technologies; and
the costs and timing of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and protecting our intellectual property rights and defending against any intellectual property-related claims.

We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses. Net losses may fluctuate significantly from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year. We expect that our cash and cash equivalents of $70.5 million as of December 31, 2022, will enable us to fund our operations, debt service obligations, and capital expenditure requirements into the first quarter of 2025. We expect that our existing cash resources will be sufficient to enable us to obtain safety and efficacy data from our ongoing CHASE Phase 2b clinical trial of KPI-012 in PCED. However, we do not expect that our existing cash resources will be sufficient to enable us to complete the clinical development of KPI-012 for PCED or any other indication. We have based our estimates on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and our operating plan may change as a result of many factors currently unknown to us. As a result, we could deplete our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect.

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Identifying potential product candidates and conducting preclinical testing and clinical trials is a time-consuming, expensive and uncertain process that takes years to complete. Completion dates and completion costs can vary significantly for each product candidate and are difficult to predict. We may never generate the necessary data or results required to obtain marketing approval and achieve product sales from KPI-012 or any other product candidate we develop. Also, even if we successfully develop KPI-012 or any other product candidate and one or more of those are approved, we may not achieve commercial success with them. Accordingly, we will require additional financing to achieve our business objectives. In addition, we may opportunistically raise additional capital due to favorable market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. Adequate additional financing may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. If adequate funds are not available to us on a timely basis, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate preclinical studies, clinical trials or other development activities for one or more of our product candidates or delay, limit, reduce or terminate our establishment of sales and marketing capabilities or other activities that may be necessary to commercialize any product candidate for which we obtain approval.

Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates.

Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial product revenues, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances, licensing arrangements, royalty agreements, and marketing and distribution arrangements. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other rights and preferences that adversely affect your rights as a common stockholder. Debt financing and preferred equity financing, if available, may involve agreements that include pledging of assets as collateral and covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends.

For example, our pledge of our assets as collateral to secure our obligations under our Loan Agreement may limit our ability to obtain additional debt financing. Under the Loan Agreement, we are also restricted from paying dividends on our common stock, granting liens, making investments, making acquisitions, making certain restricted payments, selling assets and making certain other uses of our cash without the lenders’ consent, subject in each case to certain exceptions. In addition, under our securities purchase agreement for our December 2022 private placement, we have agreed that we will not, without the prior approval of the requisite investors in the private placement (1) issue or authorize the issuance of any equity security that is senior or pari passu to the Series E Convertible Non-Redeemable Preferred Stock with respect to liquidation preference, (2) incur any additional indebtedness for borrowed money in excess of $1,000,000, in the aggregate, outside the ordinary course of business, subject to specified exceptions, including the refinancing of its existing indebtedness or (3) pay or declare any dividend or make any distribution on, any of our shares of capital stock, subject to specified exceptions.

In addition, if we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances, licensing arrangements, royalty agreements, or marketing and distribution arrangements, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or product candidates or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or current or future commercialization efforts or grant rights to develop and market products or product candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.

Our substantial indebtedness may limit cash flow available to invest in the ongoing needs of our business and a failure to comply with the covenants under our Loan Agreement, such as the requirement that our common stock continue to be listed on the Nasdaq Stock Market, could result in an event of default and acceleration of amounts due.

We have a substantial amount of indebtedness. As of December 31, 2022, we had $43.3 million of outstanding borrowings under the tranche A term loan under the Loan Agreement, bearing interest at a floating rate equal to the greater of 30-day LIBOR and 0.11%, plus 7.89%. On December 27, 2022, we entered into an amendment to the Loan Agreement, pursuant to which the lender and agent agreed to amend certain provisions of the Loan Agreement to permit the transfer of the listing of our common stock from The Nasdaq Global Select Market to The Nasdaq Capital Market in consideration for our agreement to prepay certain amounts outstanding under the Loan Agreement. In January 2023, in

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satisfaction of our obligations under the amendment, we paid down $9.3 million of principal under the Loan Agreement, plus final payment fees and accrued and unpaid interest thereon. Following such prepayment, the aggregate principal amount outstanding under the Loan Agreement was $34.0 million.

In addition, under the loan amendment, the start date for amortization payments under the Loan Agreement was changed from January 1, 2026 to January 1, 2025, at which time the aggregate principal balance of the term loan then outstanding under the Loan Agreement is required to be repaid in five monthly installments. Pursuant to the Loan Agreement, we may also make partial prepayments of the term loan to the lender, subject to specified conditions, including the payment of applicable fees and accrued and unpaid interest on the principal amount of the term loan being repaid. Our obligations under the Loan Agreement are secured by substantially all of our assets.

Our debt combined with our other financial obligations and contractual commitments could have significant adverse consequences, including:

requiring us to dedicate a substantial portion of cash flow from operations or cash on hand to the payment of interest on, and principal of, our debt, which will reduce the amounts available to fund working capital, capital expenditures, product development efforts and other general corporate purposes;
increasing our vulnerability to adverse changes in general economic, industry and market conditions;
subjecting us to restrictive covenants that may reduce our ability to acquire other businesses for cash, take certain other corporate actions or obtain further debt or equity financing;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and our industry; and
placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt or better debt servicing options.

We may not have sufficient funds or may be unable to arrange for additional financing to pay the amounts due under our existing debt, particularly if we are in default under our Loan Agreement and all of our indebtedness under the Loan Agreement is due, and funds from external sources may not be available on a timely basis or acceptable terms, if at all. In addition, a failure to comply with the covenants under our Loan Agreement could result in an event of default and acceleration of amounts due. In particular, the delisting of our common stock from The Nasdaq Capital Market or the transfer of the listing of our common stock to another nationally recognized stock exchange having listing standards that are less restrictive than The Nasdaq Capital Market, in each case after a specified cure period, are events of default under our Loan Agreement.

Fluctuations in interest rates could materially affect the interest expense on our Loan Agreement.

Because our debt under the Loan Agreement bears interest at floating interest rates, increases in interest rates could materially increase our interest expense. Further, our Loan Agreement uses LIBOR as a reference rate. The United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, or the FCA, which regulates LIBOR, announced that all LIBOR settings will either cease to be provided by any administrator or no longer be representative: (1) immediately after December 31, 2021, in the case of the one week and two month LIBOR tenors; and (2) immediately after June 30, 2023, in the case of the remaining LIBOR tenors. The United States Federal Reserve has advised that no new contracts using U.S. dollar LIBOR should be entered into after December 31, 2021. In June 2017, the Alternative Reference Rates Committee selected the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, or SOFR, a new index calculated by reference to short-term repurchase agreements backed by Treasury securities, as its preferred replacement for U.S. dollar LIBOR. Whether SOFR or any other alternative reference rates attains market acceptance as a LIBOR replacement tool remains uncertain. As such, the future of LIBOR and the potential alternatives at this time is uncertain.

When LIBOR is no longer available, or if lenders have increased costs due to the phase-out of LIBOR or changes in law, we may suffer from potential increases in interest rate costs on our floating debt rate. It is not possible to predict the effect these developments may have on our Loan Agreement. Further, we may need to renegotiate our Loan Agreement and the floating loans thereunder to replace the interest rate calculated by reference to LIBOR with an interest rate calculated by reference to a new standard that is established.

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The milestone consideration we are eligible to receive in connection with the sale of our commercial business to Alcon is subject to various risks and uncertainties.

The milestone consideration we are eligible to receive for the sale of our commercial business to Alcon is subject to various risks and uncertainties. In addition to the upfront payment of $60.0 million we received from Alcon at closing, we are eligible to receive up to four commercial-based sales milestone payments as follows: (1) $25.0 million upon the achievement of $50.0 million or more in aggregate worldwide net sales of EYSUVIS and INVELTYS in a calendar year from 2023 to 2028, (2) $65.0 million upon the achievement of $100.0 million or more in aggregate worldwide net sales of EYSUVIS and INVELTYS in a calendar year from 2023 to 2028, (3) $75.0 million upon the achievement of $175.0 million or more in aggregate worldwide net sales of EYSUVIS and INVELTYS in a calendar year from 2023 to 2029 and (4) $160.0 million upon the achievement of $250.0 million or more in aggregate worldwide net sales of EYSUVIS and INVELTYS in a calendar year from 2023 to 2029.

We cannot predict what success, if any, Alcon and its affiliates may have with respect to sales of EYSUVIS and INVELTYS and, therefore, it is uncertain as to when we may receive the milestone payments, which milestone payments we may receive and if we will receive any milestone payments at all. If we do not receive some or all of the milestone payments, our business will be harmed.

If our estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies, or any of our projections, prove to be inaccurate or financial reporting standards or interpretations change, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. The preparation of our financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of our assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. Such estimates and judgments include revenue recognition, inventory, the fair value of warrants, contingent consideration, stock-based compensation, accrued expenses and the recoverability of our net deferred tax assets and related valuation allowance. We base our estimates and judgments on historical experience, expected future experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. In addition, from time to time, we may rely on projections regarding our expected future performance that represent our management’s then-current estimates. However, any of these estimates, judgments or projections, or the assumptions underlying them, may change over time or may otherwise prove to be inaccurate. In particular, to report historical product revenue, we estimated the amount of our products that may be returned and presented this amount as a reduction of revenue in the period the related product revenue was recognized, in addition to establishing a liability. If our product return estimates are lower than the actual amount of product returns we experience, our existing reserves will be insufficient to cover future returns. Our results of operations may be adversely affected if our estimates, assumptions or projections change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our estimates or assumptions, which could cause our results of operations to fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the trading price of our common stock.

Additionally, we regularly monitor our compliance with applicable financial reporting standards and review new pronouncements and drafts thereof that are relevant to us. As a result of new standards, changes to existing standards and changes in their interpretation, we might be required to change our accounting policies, alter our operational policies and implement new or enhance existing systems so that they reflect new or amended financial reporting standards, or we may be required to restate our published financial statements. Such changes to existing standards or changes in their interpretation may have an adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial position and results of operations.

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Risks Related to Product Development

We are substantially dependent on the success of our product candidate, KPI-012. If we are unable to successfully complete the clinical development of, and obtain marketing approval for, KPI-012 or any other product candidate we may develop in the future, or experience significant delays in doing so, or if, after obtaining marketing approvals, we fail to successfully commercialize such product candidates, our business will be materially harmed.

As a result of the sale of our commercial business to Alcon in July 2022, including our commercial products, EYSUVIS and INVELTYS, and our decision to cease the development of our preclinical pipeline programs that are unrelated to our MSC-S platform, we are substantially dependent on the success of KPI-012 and any other product candidate we may develop in the future. As a result, we intend to devote a substantial portion of our research and development resources and business efforts to the development of KPI-012.

The success of KPI-012 and any other product candidates we may develop in the future will depend on many factors, including the following:

completing and obtaining favorable results from our ongoing and planned clinical trials of KPI-012 and any other product candidate we develop;
clearance of any investigational new drug application, or IND, submission for any other product candidates we develop;

applying for and receiving marketing approvals from the FDA and any other regulatory authorities for KPI-012 and any other product candidate we develop;
if approved, successfully launching and commercializing KPI-012 or any other product candidate we develop in the United States, including establishing and maintaining sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution capabilities for KPI-012 or any other product candidate we develop;
if approved, obtaining acceptance of KPI-012 and any other product candidate we develop by patients, the medical community and third-party payors;
obtaining and maintaining coverage, adequate pricing, and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors, including government payors, for our product candidates;
obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval of our manufacturing processes and our third-party manufacturers’ facilities from applicable regulatory authorities and obtaining and maintaining adequate supply of any such approved products;
maintaining a workforce of experienced scientists and others with experience in eye diseases and biologics to continue to develop our product candidates;
effectively competing with other therapies;
maintaining an acceptable potency, purity and safety profile of our products following approval;
obtaining and maintaining patent and trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity for our product candidates;
protecting our rights in our intellectual property portfolio; and
not infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating others’ intellectual property rights.

If we do not achieve one or more of these factors in a timely manner or at all, we could experience significant delays or an inability to successfully commercialize KPI-012 or any other product candidate we may develop in the future, which would materially harm our business. We may never generate the necessary data or results required to

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obtain regulatory approval of KPI-012 or any other product candidate we develop and the commercialization of KPI-012 or any other product candidate we develop may never occur.

If clinical trials of KPI-012 or any other biological product candidate that we develop fail to demonstrate potency, safety and purity to the satisfaction of the FDA or other regulatory authorities or do not otherwise produce favorable results, we may incur additional costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of such product candidate.

The risk of failure in developing product candidates is high. It is impossible to predict when or if any product candidate would prove effective or safe in humans or will receive regulatory approval. Before obtaining marketing approval from regulatory authorities for the sale of any product candidate, we must complete preclinical development and then conduct extensive clinical trials to demonstrate the potency, purity and safety for a biologic product in humans. Clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete and is uncertain as to outcome. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of testing. The outcome of preclinical testing and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later stage clinical trials, and interim results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results. For example, the results of Combangio’s Phase 1b clinical trial of KPI-012 in 12 patients with PCED may not be indicative of future results in later stage clinical trials, including in our ongoing CHASE Phase 2b clinical trial of KPI-012 in patients with PCED. Moreover, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that have believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in preclinical studies and clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain marketing approval of their product candidates. Furthermore, the failure of any product candidates to demonstrate potency, safety and purity in any clinical trial could negatively impact the perception of our other product candidates and/or cause the FDA or other regulatory authorities to require additional testing before approving any of our product candidates. For example, in our STRIDE 2 Phase 3 clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of EYSUVIS versus placebo in patients with dry eye disease, we did not achieve statistical significance for the primary symptom endpoint of ocular discomfort severity, and subsequently we received a complete response letter from the FDA indicating that positive efficacy data from an additional clinical trial was needed to support a new drug application for EYSUVIS.

If we are required to conduct additional clinical trials or other testing of KPI-012 or any other product candidate we develop beyond those that we currently expect, if we are unable to successfully complete clinical trials of our product candidates or other testing, if the results of these trials or tests are not positive or are only modestly positive or if there are safety concerns, we may:

be delayed in obtaining marketing approval for our product candidates;
not obtain marketing approval at all;
obtain approval for indications or patient populations that are not as broad as intended or desired;
obtain approval with labeling that includes significant use or distribution restrictions or safety warnings, including boxed warnings;
be subject to additional post-marketing testing requirements; or
have the product removed from the market after obtaining marketing approval.

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If we experience any of a number of possible unforeseen events in connection with our clinical trials, potential marketing approval or commercialization of our product candidates could be delayed or prevented, and our competitors could bring products to market before we do.

We may experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, clinical trials that could delay or prevent our ability to receive marketing approval or commercialize KPI-012 or any other product candidate that we may develop, including:

clinical trials of our product candidates may produce negative or inconclusive results, and we may decide, or regulators may recommend or require us, to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon product development programs;
the number of patients required for clinical trials of our product candidates may be larger than we anticipate, enrollment in these clinical trials may be slower than we anticipate or participants may drop out of these clinical trials at a higher rate than we anticipate;
our third-party contractors may fail to comply with regulatory requirements or meet their obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all;
regulators or institutional review boards may not authorize us or our investigators to commence a clinical trial or conduct a clinical trial at a prospective trial site;
we may experience delays in reaching, or fail to reach, agreement on acceptable clinical trial contracts or clinical trial protocols with prospective trial sites;
we may decide, or regulators or institutional review boards may require us, to suspend or terminate clinical research for various reasons, including noncompliance with regulatory requirements or a finding that the participants are being exposed to unacceptable health risks;
we may be subject to additional post-marketing testing requirements to maintain regulatory approval;
regulators may revise the requirements for approving our product candidates, or such requirements may not be as we anticipate;
the cost of clinical trials of our product candidates may be greater than we anticipate;
the supply or quality of our product candidates or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our product candidates may be insufficient or inadequate or may be delayed;
our product candidates may have undesirable side effects or other unexpected characteristics, causing us or our investigators, regulators or institutional review boards to suspend or terminate trials;
ongoing or future restrictions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic and its collateral consequences may result in internal and external operational delays and limitations; and
regulatory authorities may withdraw their approval of a product or impose restrictions on its distribution, such as in the form of a modified Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy.

Our product development costs will also increase if we experience delays in testing or marketing approvals. We do not know whether any of our preclinical studies or clinical trials will begin as planned, will need to be restructured or will be completed on schedule, or at all. Significant preclinical or clinical trial delays also could shorten any periods during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our product candidates or allow our competitors, such as those developing treatments for PCED, to bring products to market before we do and impair our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates.

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If we experience delays or difficulties in the enrollment of patients in clinical trials, our receipt of necessary regulatory approvals could be delayed or prevented.

We may not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials for KPI-012 or any other product candidate we may develop if we are unable to locate and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in these trials as required by the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside the United States.

Patient enrollment is affected by a variety of factors, including:

the prevalence and severity of the disease or condition under investigation;
the patient eligibility criteria for the trial in question;
the perceived risks and benefits of the product candidate under study;
the existence of existing treatments for the indications for which we are conducting clinical trials;
the efforts to facilitate timely enrollment in clinical trials;
the patient referral practices of clinicians;
the ability to monitor patients adequately during and after treatment;
the proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective patients;
the conducting of clinical trials by competitors for product candidates that treat the same indications as our product candidates;
the impact of public health epidemics, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic; and
the lack of adequate compensation for prospective patients.

We are developing KPI-012 for PCED, which is a rare condition with an estimated incidence in the United States of 100,000 cases per year, and, as such, we may have difficulty identifying and enrolling a sufficient number of patients in our ongoing and planned clinical trials of KPI-012 given the limited number of patients with PCED. Our inability to locate and enroll a sufficient number of patients for our clinical trials could result in significant delays, could require us to abandon one or more clinical trials altogether and could delay or prevent our receipt of necessary regulatory approvals. Enrollment delays in our clinical trials may result in increased development costs for our product candidates, which would cause the value of our company to decline and limit our ability to obtain additional financing.

If serious adverse or unacceptable side effects are identified during the development or commercialization of our product candidates, we may need to abandon or limit our development and/or commercialization efforts for such product candidates.

If KPI-012 or any other product candidate we develop are associated with serious adverse events or undesirable side effects in clinical trials or following approval and/or commercialization, or if any of our product candidates have characteristics that are unexpected, we may need to abandon their development or limit development or marketing to narrower uses or subpopulations in which the serious adverse events, undesirable side effects or other characteristics are less prevalent, less severe or more acceptable from a risk-benefit perspective. While KPI-012 was generally well-tolerated in Combangio’s Phase 1b clinical trials, it was only administered in 12 subjects. Compounds that initially show promise in clinical or earlier stage testing for treating eye disease or other diseases may later be found to cause side effects that prevent further development and commercialization of the compound. In addition, adverse events which had initially been considered unrelated to the study treatment may later, even following approval and/or commercialization, be found to be caused by the study treatment. Moreover, incorrect or improper use of a product by patients could result in additional unexpected side effects or adverse events. There can be no assurance that any product we may develop will

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be used correctly, and if used incorrectly, such misuse could hamper commercial adoption or market acceptance of such products or product candidates, if approved, at the rate we currently expect.

We may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular product candidate or indication and fail to capitalize on product candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

Because we have limited financial and managerial resources, we focus on research programs and product candidates that we identify for specific indications. As a result, we may forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other product candidates or for other indications that later prove to have greater commercial potential. In July 2022, we sold our commercial business, including EYSUVIS and INVELTYS, to Alcon and we made a strategic determination to cease the development of our preclinical pipeline programs that are unrelated to our MSC-S platform and to focus our research and development efforts on KPI-012.

We may never realize the anticipated benefits of these decisions and, as a result, we may be required to forego or delay other opportunities. In addition, our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on current and future research and development programs and KPI-012 for specific indications may not yield any commercially viable products. If we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential or target market for a particular product candidate, we may relinquish valuable rights to that product candidate through collaboration, licensing or other royalty arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights to such product candidate.

KPI-012 has been evaluated in clinical trials outside of the United States, and we may in the future conduct clinical trials for product candidates at sites outside the United States. The FDA may not accept data from trials conducted in such locations.

Combangio has in the past chosen, and we may in the future choose, to conduct one or more of our clinical trials outside the United States. Although the FDA may accept data from clinical trials conducted outside the United States, acceptance of these data is subject to conditions imposed by the FDA. For example, the clinical trial must be well designed and conducted and be performed by qualified investigators in accordance with ethical principles. The trial population must also adequately represent the U.S. population, and the data must be applicable to the U.S. population and U.S. medical practice in ways that the FDA deems clinically meaningful. In addition, while these clinical trials are subject to the applicable local laws, FDA acceptance of the data will depend on its determination that the trials also complied with all applicable U.S. laws and regulations. In 2020 and 2021, Combangio conducted a Phase 1b clinical trial of KPI-012 for PCED in 12 patients in Mexico. Based on the results of the Phase 1b clinical trial conducted in Mexico, we initiated a full preclinical development program and submitted an IND application to the FDA for KPI-012 which was approved in December 2022, and in February 2023, we dosed our first patient in the CHASE Phase 2b clinical trial of KPI-012 for PCED in the United States. If the FDA does not accept the data from any trial that we conduct outside the United States, it would likely result in the need for additional trials, which would be costly and time-consuming and could delay or permanently halt our development of the applicable product candidates.

The ongoing coronavirus pandemic and the efforts to prevent its spread have adversely impacted our operations, could impact the development of KPI-012 or any other product candidate we develop, and may continue to adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and government measures taken in response to it, including from time to time quarantines, strict travel restrictions and bans, heightened border scrutiny and other measures, have had a significant impact, both direct and indirect, on businesses and commerce; supply chains have been disrupted; facilities and production have been suspended; and demand for certain goods and services, such as medical services and supplies, has spiked, while demand for other goods and services has fallen significantly.

We and any of our contract manufacturing organizations and contract research organizations may face disruptions that may affect our ability to initiate and complete preclinical studies and clinical trials for KPI-012 and any other product candidates we develop, including disruptions in procuring supplies that are essential for our research and development activities, manufacturing disruptions, disruptions in our ability to obtain necessary trial site approvals, as well as delays in or difficulties with enrollment and other delays at clinical trial sites. We may face impediments to regulatory meetings and clearance and approvals due to measures intended to limit in-person interactions. We do not

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know the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will impact our development of KPI-012, including our ongoing CHASE Phase 2b clinical trial, or any other product candidates that we develop.

Additionally, while we currently are not experiencing interruptions in our manufacturing of KPI-012, any reinstatement of quarantines, travel restrictions and other measures may significantly impact the ability of employees of our third-party suppliers to get to their places of work to manufacture and deliver future supplies if and when needed. From time-to-time moratoria have been put in place on routine medical appointments and elective surgeries in many jurisdictions, including ocular surgeries, which have adversely affected the market for INVELTYS, which is indicated for the treatment of inflammation and pain following ocular surgery. The COVID-19 pandemic had negatively impacted our revenues from INVELTYS. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has generally had an adverse impact on the launch of pharmaceutical products, and we believe the pandemic impacted our launch of EYSUVIS. We cannot predict whether the COVID-19 pandemic will impact Alcon’s ability to commercialize EYSUVIS and INVELTYS, and as a result, we cannot be certain whether the COVID-19 pandemic might adversely affect when we may receive milestone payments from Alcon, which milestone payments we may receive and if we will receive any milestone payments at all.

The COVID-19 pandemic has already caused significant disruptions in the financial markets, and may again cause such disruptions, which could impact our ability to raise additional funds through public offerings and may also impact the volatility of our stock price and trading in our stock. Moreover, the significant ongoing impact of the pandemic on economies worldwide could result in more extensive adverse effects on our business and operations. The full extent of the impact of COVID-19 on our development efforts will depend on the length and severity of this pandemic, the timing and extent of any resurgence of the COVID-19 virus or any variant strains of the virus, the availability and effectiveness of vaccines and treatments, and the impact of the foregoing on our employees, vendors and government agencies, which is uncertain and cannot be predicted. We cannot be certain what the overall impact of the COVID-19 pandemic will be on our business and it has the potential to significantly and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Risks Related to the Commercialization of our Product Candidates

Even if KPI-012 or any other product candidates that we may develop in the future receives marketing approval, such products may fail to achieve market acceptance by clinicians and patients, or adequate formulary coverage, pricing or reimbursement by third-party payors and others in the medical community, and the market opportunity for these products may be smaller than we estimate.

If KPI-012 or any other product candidate that we develop receives marketing approval, it may nonetheless fail to gain sufficient market acceptance by clinicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community. We are developing KPI-012 for PCED, which is a rare disease. Our understanding of both the number of people who have a PCED, as well as the subset of people with PCED diseases who have the potential to benefit from treatment with KPI-012, are based on estimates. These estimates may prove to be incorrect. The number of patients with PCED may turn out to be lower than expected, may not be otherwise amenable to treatment with KPI-012 or may become increasingly difficult to identify and access, all of which would adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Biosimilar and generic versions of any products that compete with KPI-012 or any other product candidates we may develop would likely be offered at a substantially lower price than we expect to offer for our product candidates, if approved. As a result, clinicians, patients and third-party payors may choose to rely on such products rather than our product candidates.

Our assessment of the potential market opportunity for KPI-012 is based on industry and market data that we obtained from industry publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. Industry publications and third-party research, surveys and studies generally indicate that their information has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, although they do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of such information. While we believe these industry publications and third-party research, surveys and studies are reliable, we have not independently verified such data. The potential market opportunity for the treatment of PCED is difficult to precisely estimate. Our estimates of the potential market opportunities for KPI-012 include several key assumptions based on our industry knowledge, industry publications, third-party research and other surveys, which may be based on a small sample size and fail to accurately reflect market opportunities. While we believe that our internal assumptions are reasonable, no independent source has verified such assumptions. If any of our assumptions or estimates, or these publications,

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research, surveys or studies prove to be inaccurate, then the actual market for KPI-012 for PCED may be smaller than we expect, and as a result our future product revenue may be limited and it may be more difficult for us to achieve or maintain profitability. The uncertainty with respect to the future progression of the COVID-19 pandemic and its long-term effects may adversely impact the accuracy of such estimates and our potential market opportunity for KPI-012.

If KPI-012 or any other product candidate for which we may obtain marketing approval does not achieve adequate levels of acceptance by physicians and patients, formulary coverage, pricing or reimbursement, we may not generate significant product revenues and we may not become profitable. The degree of market acceptance of KPI-012 or any other product candidate for which we may obtain marketing approval, will depend on a number of factors, including:

the efficacy and potential advantages of our product candidates compared to alternative treatments, including the existing standard of care;
our ability to offer our products for sale at competitive prices, particularly in light of the lower cost of alternative treatments;
the availability of third-party formulary coverage and adequate reimbursement;
the clinical indications for which the product is licensed or approved;
the convenience and ease of administration compared to alternative treatments;
the willingness of the target patient population to try new therapies and of clinicians to prescribe these therapies;
the strength of our marketing and distribution support;
the timing of market introduction of competitive products;
the prevalence and severity of any side effects; and
any restrictions on the use of our products together with other medications.

Even if we are able to successfully commercialize KPI-012 or any other product candidate that we may develop, if and when they are approved, the products may become subject to unfavorable pricing regulations, third-party coverage or reimbursement practices or healthcare reform initiatives, which could harm our business.

Our ability to successfully commercialize KPI-012 or any other product candidate that we may develop if and when they are approved will depend, in part, on the extent to which coverage and adequate reimbursement for these products and related treatments will be available from government healthcare programs, private health insurers, managed care plans and other organizations. Government authorities and third-party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, decide which medications they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels. A primary trend in the U.S. healthcare industry and elsewhere is cost containment. Government authorities and third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications. Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring that companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices and are challenging the prices charged for medical products. Coverage and reimbursement may not be available for KPI-012 or any other product candidate that we may commercialize and, even if they are available, the level of reimbursement may be limited or not satisfactory.

Inadequate reimbursement may adversely affect the demand for, or the price of KPI-012 or any other product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval. Obtaining and maintaining adequate reimbursement for our products may be difficult. We may be required to conduct expensive pharmacoeconomic studies to justify coverage and reimbursement or the level of reimbursement relative to other therapies. If coverage and adequate reimbursement are not available or reimbursement is available only to limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize KPI-012 or any other product candidate if and when they are approved.

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There may be significant delays in obtaining coverage and reimbursement for newly approved products and coverage may be more limited than the indications for which the product is approved by the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside the United States. Moreover, eligibility for coverage and reimbursement does not imply that a product will be paid for in all cases or at a rate that covers our costs, including research, development, manufacture, sale and distribution expenses. Interim reimbursement levels for new products, if applicable, may also not be sufficient to cover our costs and may not be made permanent. Reimbursement rates may vary according to the use of the product and the clinical setting in which it is used, may be based on reimbursement levels already set for lower cost products and may be incorporated into existing payments for other services. Net prices for products may be reduced by mandatory discounts or rebates required by government healthcare programs or private payors and by any future relaxation of laws that presently restrict imports of products from countries where they may be sold at lower prices than in the United States. Third-party payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement policies.

Our inability to promptly obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement rates from both government-funded and private payors for any approved products that we develop would compromise our ability to generate revenues and become profitable.

The regulations that govern marketing approvals, pricing, coverage and reimbursement for new products vary widely from country to country. Current and future legislation may significantly change the approval requirements in ways that could involve additional costs and cause delays in obtaining approvals. Some countries require approval of the sale price of a product before it can be marketed. In many countries, the pricing review period begins after marketing or product licensing approval is granted. In some foreign markets, prescription pharmaceutical pricing remains subject to continuing governmental control even after initial approval is granted. As a result, we might obtain marketing approval for a product in a particular country, but then be subject to price regulations that delay our commercial launch of the product, possibly for lengthy time periods, and negatively impact the revenues we are able to generate from the sale of the product in that country. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of our product candidate to other available therapies. Adverse pricing limitations may hinder our ability to recoup our investment in one or more product candidates, even if our product candidates obtain marketing approval.

Even if a product candidate we develop is approved for sale in the United States or in other countries, there can be no assurance that such product candidate will be considered medically reasonable and necessary for a specific indication or cost-effective by third-party payors, or that coverage and an adequate level of reimbursement will be available or that third-party payors’ reimbursement policies will not adversely affect our ability to sell such product candidate profitably.

If we are unable to establish and maintain sales, marketing and distribution capabilities or enter into sales, marketing and distribution agreements with third parties, if and when necessary, we may not be successful in commercializing KPI-012 or any other product candidate that we may develop if and when they are approved.

We established a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure for the commercial launch of INVELTYS and EYSUVIS, and, as a company, we have limited experience in the sales, marketing and distribution of therapeutic products. Following the sale of our commercial business to Alcon in July 2022 and our determination to focus our research and development efforts on KPI-012, we committed to a course of action to terminate 113 employees, consisting of our entire commercial sales force and certain employees in our commercial, scientific, manufacturing, finance and administrative functions. To achieve commercial success for any product for which we obtain marketing approval in the future, we will again need to establish sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, either ourselves or through collaborations or other arrangements with third parties.

There are risks involved with establishing, maintaining and expanding, if and when necessary, our own sales, marketing and distribution capabilities. For example, recruiting and training a sales force is expensive and time-consuming, may divert our management and business development resources and could delay any future product launch. Establishing and maintaining a sales force would require us to continue to implement and improve our managerial, operational and financial systems, which we may not do effectively. Any inability to manage growth, when necessary, could delay the execution of our business plans or disrupt our operations. Further, we may overestimate or underestimate the size of the sales force required for a successful product launch.

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We have not yet established our own commercial organization or distribution capabilities specific to KPI-012. While we believe that we will be able to commercialize KPI-012, if approved, for the treatment of PCED with a small, targeted, internal sales force in the United States and potentially other major markets, our assumptions may prove inaccurate. In the future, we may need a larger sales force and at a higher cost than previously anticipated. If the commercial launch of any product candidate for which we establish a commercial infrastructure is delayed or does not occur for any reason, we would have prematurely or unnecessarily incurred commercialization expenses. This may be costly, and our investment would be lost if we cannot retain or reposition any such sales, marketing and distribution personnel.

Factors that may inhibit our efforts to commercialize on our own KPI-012 or any other product candidate we develop, if and when approved, include:

our inability to recruit, train and retain adequate numbers of effective sales and marketing personnel;
our inability to obtain and maintain coverage, adequate pricing and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors, including government payors;
the inability of sales personnel to obtain access to clinicians, including as a result of limitation on office visits as a result of COVID-19 or other health concerns, or persuade adequate numbers of clinicians to prescribe our products;
the lack of complementary products to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more extensive product lines; and
unforeseen costs and expenses associated with establishing, maintaining and expanding, if and when necessary, an independent sales, marketing and distribution organization.

While we cannot be certain when, if ever, we will seek and/or receive marketing approval to commercialize any of our product candidates outside the United States, we may seek marketing approval and explore commercialization of KPI-012 in certain markets outside the United States utilizing a variety of collaboration, distribution, co-promotion and other marketing arrangements with one or more third parties. Our product revenues and our profitability, if any, under any such third-party collaboration, distribution or other marketing arrangements are likely to be lower than if we were to market, sell and distribute KPI-012 ourselves. We may also consider seeking marketing approval outside the United States for other product candidates we may develop in the future. If we decide to seek regulatory approval for any of our product candidates outside the United States, we may need to seek additional patent approvals, seek licenses to patents held by third parties and/or face claims of infringing third-party patent rights.

In addition, we may not be successful in entering into arrangements with third parties to sell, market and distribute KPI-012 or any other product candidate we may develop or we may be unable to do so on terms that are favorable to us. We likely will have little control over such third parties, and any of them may fail to devote the necessary resources and attention to sell and market effectively any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval. If we do not establish and maintain our sales, marketing and distribution capabilities successfully, when needed, either on our own or in collaboration with third parties, we will not be successful in commercializing any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval.

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We face substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products before or more successfully than we do. Our competitors include major pharmaceutical companies with significantly greater financial resources. KPI-012 and any other product candidate we may develop, if approved, will also compete with existing branded, generic and off-label products.

The development and commercialization of new drug products is highly competitive. We face competition with respect to our product candidate, KPI-012, and we will face competition with respect to any other product candidate that we may seek to develop or commercialize in the future, from major pharmaceutical companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies worldwide. Potential competitors also include academic institutions, government agencies and other public and private research organizations that conduct research, seek patent protection and establish collaborative arrangements for research, development, manufacturing and commercialization.

If approved, we expect KPI-012 to compete with Oxervate®, which is the only approved prescription pharmaceutical product in the PCED space. Oxervate (cenegermin-bkbj) was approved in August 2018 for the treatment of neurotrophic keratitis, or NK, a degenerative disease characterized by decreased corneal sensitivity and poor corneal healing, which we believe to represent approximately one-third of all PCED cases. Oxervate is a topical eye drop that is administered six times per day at two-hour intervals for eight weeks. Each administration of Oxervate requires the use of a vial containing the drug product, a vial adapter, a single-use pipette and disinfectant wipes. In addition, to our knowledge, there are currently only two product candidates in active clinical development for the treatment of a broad PCED population. To our knowledge, there are currently only two product candidates in active clinical development for the treatment of a broad PCED population. KIO-201, a chemically modified form of the natural polymer hyaluronic acid administered as an eye drop, is currently being studied in a Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with PCED by Kiora Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Nexagon, an antisense oligonucleotide that inhibits connexin43, is currently being studied in a Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with PCED resulting from severe ocular chemical and/or thermal injuries, by Amber Ophthalmics. A number of companies are pursuing development of product candidates for the treatment of NK, including ReGenTree, LLC (Timbetasin), Recordati S.p.A. (Udonitrectag) and Claris Biotherapeutics, Inc. (CSB-001).

We are also aware of potential competitors for KPI-014 for limbal stem cell deficiency, or LSCD, and Sjögren’s. Competitive products and product candidates in LSCD include two stem cell-based approaches. ABCB5+ limbal stem cells, which are being studied in Phase 1/2 clinical trials and are being developed by RHEACELL GmbH & Co. KG, utilize allogeneic limbal stem cells derived from human corneal rims, which are expanded ex-vivo and manufactured as an advanced-therapy medicinal product. Holoclar utilizes autologous limbal stem cells derived from the healthy portion of the patient’s eye. Holoclar is approved in the European Union for treatment of LSCD caused by ocular burns and is developed by Chiesi. To our knowledge, there are no products in development focused on Partial Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency.

Competitive pharmaceutical products in moderate-to-severe Sjögren’s include cyclosporine, lifitegrast, ophthalmic cortisone and systemic immunosuppressants. To our knowledge, there are only two topical ophthalmic product candidates in active clinical development for ocular manifestations of moderate-to-severe Sjögren’s. LacripepTM, a synthetic peptide fragment of lacritin being developed by Tear Solutions, recently completed a Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with primary Sjögren’s-associated ocular surface disease. Oxervate® (cenegermin-bkbj) is currently being evaluated in Phase 3 clinical trials in patients with severe Sjögren’s dry eye disease. Several systemic pharmaceutical product candidates are also in clinical development for the treatment of Sjögren’s, including Dazodalibep (Horizon Therapeutics), SAR-441344 (Sanofi), Ianalumab (Novartis), Branebrutinib (Novartis), Iscalimab (Novartis) and OSE-127 (OSE Immuno Therapeutics). 

Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are more convenient or are less expensive than our products. Our competitors also may obtain FDA or other regulatory approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market. Our competitors may develop products that are available on a generic basis, and our product candidates may not demonstrate sufficient additional clinical benefits to clinicians, patients or payors to justify a higher price compared to generic products. In many cases, insurers or other third-party payors, particularly Medicare, seek to encourage the use of biosimilar and generic products.

Many of the companies against which we are competing or which we may compete against in the future have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing,

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conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals and marketing approved products than we do. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. Smaller and other early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These third parties compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs.

Product liability lawsuits against us could divert our resources and could cause us to incur substantial liabilities and limit commercialization of any products that we may develop.

We face an inherent risk of product liability exposure related to the use of our product candidates that we develop in human clinical trials, including KPI-012. We face an even greater risk if we commercially sell any products that we may develop. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against claims that our product candidates or products caused injuries, we will incur substantial liabilities. Regardless of merit or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

decreased demand for products that we may develop;
injury to our reputation and significant negative media attention;
withdrawal of clinical trial participants;
significant costs to defend the related litigation;
substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients;
loss of revenue;
reduced time and attention of our management to pursue our business strategy; and
the inability to successfully commercialize any products that we may develop.

We currently hold $15 million in product liability insurance coverage in the aggregate, with a per incident limit of $15 million, which may not be adequate to cover all liabilities that we may incur. We may need to increase our insurance coverage if we expand our ongoing and planned clinical trials for KPI-012. We will need to further increase our insurance coverage when and if we begin commercialization of KPI-012 or any other product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval. Insurance coverage is increasingly expensive. We may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in an amount adequate to satisfy any liability that may arise.

Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties

We have relied, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties to conduct our clinical trials, and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily, including failing to meet deadlines for the completion of such trials.

We have relied on third parties, such as clinical research organizations, clinical data management organizations, medical institutions and clinical investigators, in conducting our clinical trials and expect to continue to rely on such parties to conduct clinical trials of any product candidate that we develop. We or these third parties may terminate their engagements with us at any time for a variety of reasons, including a failure to perform by the third parties. If we need to enter into alternative arrangements, that could delay our product development activities.

Our reliance on these third parties for clinical development activities reduces our control over these activities but does not relieve us of our responsibilities. For example, we remain responsible for ensuring that each of our clinical trials is conducted in accordance with the general investigational plan and protocols for the trial. Moreover, the FDA requires us to comply with standards, commonly referred to as Good Clinical Practices, for conducting, recording and reporting the results of clinical trials to assure that data and reported results are credible and accurate and that the rights,

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integrity and confidentiality of trial participants are protected. We also are required to register ongoing clinical trials and post the results of completed clinical trials on a government-sponsored database, ClinicalTrials.gov, within specified timeframes. Failure to do so can result in fines, adverse publicity and civil and criminal sanctions.

If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines or conduct our clinical trials in accordance with regulatory requirements or our stated protocols, we will not be able to obtain, or may be delayed in obtaining, marketing approvals for our product candidates and will not be able to, or may be delayed in our efforts to, successfully commercialize our product candidates. Furthermore, these third parties may also have relationships with other entities, some of which may be our competitors.

We also have relied, and expect to continue to rely, on other third parties to store and distribute drug supplies for our clinical trials. Any performance failure on the part of our distributors could delay clinical development or marketing approval of our product candidates or commercialization of products, producing additional losses and depriving us of potential product revenue.

We contract with third parties for the manufacture of KPI-012 and plan to contract with third parties for preclinical, clinical and commercial supply of any other product candidates we develop. This reliance on third parties increases the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of our product candidates or such quantities at an acceptable cost, which could delay, prevent or impair our development or commercialization efforts.

We do not own or operate manufacturing facilities for the production of preclinical and clinical quantities of any product candidates. We do not own or operate, and currently have no plans to establish, any manufacturing facilities for KPI-012. We rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties for the manufacture of both drug substance and finished product for KPI-012 for preclinical and clinical testing, as well as for commercial manufacture of KPI-012 if it receives marketing approval. We also rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties for packaging, labeling, sterilization, storage, distribution and other production logistics for KPI-012. We have only limited supply agreements in place with respect to KPI-012, and these arrangements do not extend to commercial supply. We obtain supplies of drug substance and finished product for KPI-012 on a purchase order basis and do not have long term committed supply arrangements with respect to KPI-012. We may be unable to maintain our current arrangements for KPI-012 or enter into agreements for commercial supply of KPI-012 on acceptable terms or at all. We also expect to rely on third-party manufacturers to manufacture preclinical, clinical and commercial supplies of any other product candidates we develop, as well as for packaging, serialization, storage, distribution and other production logistics.

We are subject to risks related to our reliance on third-party manufacturers for the manufacture of the drug substance and product of KPI-012, a biological product candidate. Manufacturing biologics is complex, especially in large quantities. Biologic products must be made consistently and in compliance with a clearly defined manufacturing process. KPI-012 is a bone-marrow derived MSC-S therapeutic composed of biologically active components, including protease inhibitors and growth factors, and is produced from a proprietary cell bank. The manufacturing process for KPI-012 is comprised of three stages: (1) cultivation of mesenchymal stem cells from a working cell bank and production of unprocessed conditioned media (cell-free secretome), (2) production of drug substance as a chemically defined solution and (3) formulation and filling of drug product. While the drug product for Combangio’s early research and Phase 1b clinical trial was cultivated using a planar culture model, we implemented a bioreactor cultivation model for our ongoing CHASE Phase 2b clinical trial of KPI-012. We also plan to utilize a bioreactor cultivation model for our planned clinical trials and for commercial supply of KPI-012. We are continuing the process of scaling up our manufacturing processes and capabilities with our third-party manufacturers to support longer term clinical development. We do not currently have arrangements in place for redundant supply or a second source for bulk drug substance. In addition, KPI-012 drug product is manufactured from a vial of a working cell bank, which in turn was produced from a vial of master cell bank. KPI-012 master cell bank and working cell bank is stored in two separate locations. It is possible that we could lose the cell bank in both locations and have our manufacturing severely impacted by the need to replace the cell bank.

Our third party manufacturers may encounter shortages in the raw materials necessary to produce our product candidates in the quantities needed for our clinical trials, or our product candidates, if approved, in sufficient quantities for commercialization or to meet an increase in demand, as a result of capacity constraints or delays or disruptions in the market for the raw materials, including shortages caused by the purchase of such raw materials by our competitors or others and shortages related to epidemics or pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The failure of us or our third party manufacturers to obtain the raw materials necessary to manufacture sufficient quantities of KPI-012 or any other product candidates we may develop, may have a material adverse effect on our business.

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The FDA maintains strict requirements governing the manufacturing process and third-party manufacturers are subject to inspection and approval by the FDA before a company can commence the manufacture and sale of any of its products or product candidates, and thereafter subject to FDA inspection from time to time. Failure by third-party manufacturers to pass such inspections and otherwise satisfactorily complete the FDA approval regimen with respect to products or product candidates may result in regulatory actions such as the issuance of FDA Form 483 notices of observations, warning letters or injunctions or the loss of operating licenses. Depending on the severity of any potential regulatory action, our clinical or commercial supply could be interrupted or limited, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. When a manufacturer seeks to modify or make even seemingly minor changes to the manufacturing process, the FDA may require the applicant to conduct a comparability study that evaluates the potential differences in the product resulting from the change in the manufacturing process. In connection with any application for approval to market product candidates in the United States, we may be required to conduct a comparability study if the product we intend to market is supplied by a manufacturer different from the one who supplied the product evaluated in our clinical studies. Delays in designing and completing this study to the satisfaction of the FDA could delay or preclude our development and commercialization plans and thereby limit our revenues and growth.

Reliance on third-party manufacturers entails additional risks, including reliance on the third-party for regulatory compliance and quality assurance, the possible breach of the manufacturing agreement by the third-party, the possible misappropriation of our proprietary information, including our trade secrets and know-how, and the possible termination or nonrenewal of the agreement by the third-party at a time that is costly or inconvenient for us.

Third-party manufacturers may not be able to comply with current good manufacturing practices, or cGMP, regulations or similar regulatory requirements outside the United States. Our failure, or the failure of our third-party manufacturers, to comply with applicable regulations could result in sanctions being imposed on us, including clinical holds, fines, injunctions, civil penalties, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, license revocation, seizures or recalls of product candidates or products, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions, any of which could significantly and adversely affect supplies of our product candidates and harm our business and results of operations.

KPI-012 and any other product candidate that we may develop may compete with other product candidates and products for access to a limited number of suitable manufacturing facilities that operate under cGMP regulations. For example, we were previously required to change our third-party manufacturer when the manufacturer was purchased by a third-party and exited the contract manufacturing business. The process of changing manufacturers can cause substantial time delays, and if we are required to change our manufacturer again in the future, it may delay our ongoing and planned clinical trials or development timeline.

Our current and anticipated future dependence upon others for the manufacture of KPI-012 or any other product candidate we develop may adversely affect our future profit margins and our ability to commercialize any products that receive marketing approval on a timely and competitive basis.

The manufacture of biologics is complex, and our third-party manufacturers may encounter difficulties in production. If any of our third-party manufacturers encounter such difficulties, our ability to provide supply of product candidates for clinical trials or products for patients, if approved, could be delayed or prevented.

Manufacturing biologics, especially in large quantities, is often complex and may require the use of innovative technologies to handle living cells. Each lot of an approved biologic must undergo thorough testing for identity, strength, quality, purity and potency. Manufacturing biologics requires facilities specifically designed for and validated for this purpose, and sophisticated quality assurance and quality control procedures are necessary. Slight deviations anywhere in the manufacturing process, including filling, labeling, packaging, storage and shipping and quality control and testing, may result in lot failures, product recalls or spoilage. When changes are made to the manufacturing process, we may be required to provide preclinical and clinical data showing the comparable identity, strength, quality, purity or potency of the products before and after such changes. If microbial, viral or other contaminations are discovered at the facilities of our manufacturers, such facilities may need to be closed for an extended period of time to investigate and remedy the contamination, which could delay clinical trials and adversely harm our business.

In addition, there are risks associated with large scale manufacturing for clinical trials or commercial scale including, among others, cost overruns, potential problems with process scale-up, process reproducibility, stability issues, compliance with cGMPs, lot consistency and timely availability of raw materials. Even if we obtain regulatory

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approval for KPI-012 or any product candidates we may develop in the future, there is no assurance that our manufacturers will be able to manufacture the approved product to specifications acceptable to the FDA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities, to produce it in sufficient quantities to meet the requirements for the potential commercial launch of the product or to meet potential future demand. If our manufacturers are unable to produce sufficient quantities for clinical trials or for commercialization, our development and commercialization efforts would be impaired, which would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

We may enter into collaborations with third parties for the development or commercialization of our product candidates. If our collaborations are not successful, we may not be able to capitalize on the market potential of these product candidates.

We expect to utilize a variety of types of collaboration, distribution and other marketing arrangements with third parties to develop and commercialize KPI-012 or any other product candidate we develop and for which we seek or obtain marketing approval in markets outside the United States. We also may enter into arrangements with third parties to perform these services in the United States if we do not establish our own sales, marketing and distribution capabilities in the United States for our product candidates or if we determine that such third-party arrangements are otherwise beneficial. We also may seek third-party collaborators for development and commercialization of our product candidates. For example, we may consider potential collaborative partnership opportunities prior to initiating IND-enabling studies on product candidates we may develop. Our likely collaborators for any sales, marketing, distribution, development, licensing or broader collaboration arrangements include large and mid-size pharmaceutical companies, regional and national pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies. We are not currently party to any such arrangement. However, if we do enter into any such arrangements with any third parties in the future, we will likely have limited control over the amount and timing of resources that our collaborators dedicate to the development or commercialization of our product candidates. Our ability to generate revenues from these arrangements will depend on our collaborators’ abilities and efforts to successfully perform the functions assigned to them in these arrangements.

Collaborations that we enter into may pose a number of risks, including the following:

collaborators have significant discretion in determining the amount and timing of efforts and resources that they will apply to these collaborations;
collaborators may not perform their obligations as expected;
collaborators may not pursue development of our product candidates or may elect not to continue or renew development programs based on results of clinical trials or other studies, changes in the collaborators’ strategic focus or available funding, or external factors, such as an acquisition, that divert resources or create competing priorities;
collaborators may not pursue commercialization of our product candidates that receive marketing approval or may elect not to continue or renew commercialization programs based on changes in the collaborators’ strategic focus or available funding, or external factors, such as an acquisition, that divert resources or create competing priorities;
collaborators may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding for a clinical trial program, stop a clinical trial or abandon a product candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials or require a new formulation of a product candidate for clinical testing;
collaborators could independently develop, or develop with third parties, products that compete directly or indirectly with our product candidates if the collaborators believe that competitive products are more likely to be successfully developed or can be commercialized under terms that are more economically attractive than ours;
product candidates discovered in collaboration with us may be viewed by our collaborators as competitive with their own products or product candidates, which may cause collaborators to cease to devote resources to the commercialization of our product candidates;

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a collaborator with marketing and distribution rights to one or more of our product candidates that achieve regulatory approval may not commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of such product or products;
disagreements with collaborators, including disagreements over proprietary rights, contract interpretation or the preferred course of development, might cause delays or termination of the research, development or commercialization of product candidates, might lead to additional responsibilities for us with respect to product candidates, or might result in litigation or arbitration, any of which would divert management attention and resources, be time-consuming and expensive;
collaborators may not properly maintain or defend our intellectual property rights or may use our proprietary information in such a way as to invite litigation that could jeopardize or invalidate our intellectual property or proprietary information or expose us to potential litigation;
collaborators may infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate the intellectual property rights of third parties, which may expose us to litigation and potential liability; and
collaborations may be terminated for the convenience of the collaborator and, if terminated, we could be required to raise additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of the applicable product candidates.

Collaboration agreements may not lead to development or commercialization of product candidates or products in the most efficient manner, or at all. If any collaborations that we enter into do not result in the successful development and commercialization of products or if one of our collaborators terminates its agreement with us, we may not receive any future research funding or milestone or royalty payments under the collaboration. If we do not receive the funding we expect under these agreements, our development of our product candidates could be delayed, and we may need additional resources to develop our product candidates. All of the risks relating to product development, regulatory approval and commercialization described herein also apply to the activities of our collaborators.

Additionally, subject to its contractual obligations to us, if a collaborator of ours were to be involved in a business combination, it might de-emphasize or terminate the development or commercialization of any product or product candidate licensed to it by us. If one of our collaborators terminates its agreement with us, we may find it more difficult to attract new collaborators and our perception in the business and financial communities could be harmed.

If we are not able to establish collaborations, we may have to alter our development and commercialization plans and our business could be adversely affected.

For some of our product candidates, we may decide to collaborate with pharmaceutical or biotechnology companies for the development of our product candidates or the potential commercialization of our product candidates. We face significant competition in seeking appropriate collaborators. Whether we reach a definitive agreement for a collaboration will depend, among other things, upon our assessment of the collaborator’s resources and expertise, the terms and conditions of the proposed collaboration and the proposed collaborator’s evaluation of a number of factors. Those factors may include the design or results of clinical trials, the likelihood of approval by the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside the United States, the potential market for the subject product candidate, the costs and complexities of manufacturing and delivering such product candidate to patients, the potential of competing products, the existence of uncertainty with respect to our ownership of technology, which can exist if there is a challenge to such ownership without regard to the merits of the challenge, and industry and market conditions generally. The collaborator may also consider alternative product candidates or technologies for similar indications that may be available to collaborate on and whether such a collaboration could be more attractive than the one with us for our product candidate. We may also be restricted under future license agreements from entering into agreements on certain terms with potential collaborators. Collaborations are complex and time-consuming to negotiate and document. In addition, there have been a significant number of recent business combinations among large pharmaceutical companies that have resulted in a reduced number of potential future collaborators.

If we are unable to reach agreements with suitable collaborators on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all, we may have to curtail the development of a product candidate, reduce or delay its development program or one or more

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of our other development programs, delay the potential commercialization of a product candidate or reduce the scope of any sales or marketing activities, or increase our expenditures and undertake development or commercialization activities at our own expense. If we elect to fund and undertake development or commercialization activities on our own, we may need to obtain additional expertise and additional capital, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. If we fail to enter into collaborations and do not have sufficient funds or expertise to undertake the necessary development and commercialization activities, we may not be able to further develop our product candidates or bring them to market or continue to develop our product platform.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

We may be unable to obtain and maintain patent protection for our technology or product candidates, or the scope of the patent protection obtained may not be sufficiently broad or enforceable, such that our competitors could develop and commercialize technology, products and product candidates similar or identical to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize our technology and product candidates may be impaired.

Our success depends in large part on our ability to obtain and maintain patent protection in the United States and other countries with respect to our proprietary technology and product candidates, including KPI-012. We have sought to protect our proprietary position by filing in the United States and in certain foreign jurisdictions patent applications related to our proprietary technologies and product candidates.

The patent prosecution process is expensive and time-consuming, and we may not have filed, maintained, or prosecuted and may not be able to file, maintain and prosecute all necessary or desirable patents or patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. We may also fail to identify patentable aspects of our research and development output before it is too late to obtain patent protection.

The patent position of pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device companies generally is highly uncertain, involves complex legal and factual questions and has in recent years been the subject of much litigation. As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability and commercial value of our patent rights are highly uncertain. Our pending and future patent applications may fail to result in issued patents in the United States or in other foreign countries which protect our technology or product candidates, or which effectively prevent others from commercializing competitive technologies and products. In addition, the laws of foreign countries may not protect our rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, and the standards applied by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and foreign patent offices in granting patents are not always applied uniformly or predictably. For example, unlike patent law in the United States, European patent law precludes the patentability of methods of treatment of the human body and imposes substantial restrictions on the scope of claims it will grant if broader than specifically disclosed embodiments. Publications of discoveries in the scientific literature often lag behind the actual discoveries, and patent applications in the United States and other jurisdictions are typically not published until 18 months after filing, or in some cases not at all. Therefore, we cannot be certain whether we or our licensors were the first to make the inventions claimed in our owned or licensed patents or pending patent applications, or that we or our licensors were the first to file for patent protection of such inventions. Databases for patents and publications, and methods for searching them, are inherently limited so we may not know the full scope of all issued and pending patent applications. As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability, and commercial value of our patent rights are uncertain. Our pending and future patent applications may not result in patents being issued which protect our technology or product candidates, in whole or in part, or which effectively prevent others from commercializing competitive technologies, products and product candidates. In particular, during prosecution of any patent application, the issuance of any patents based on the application may depend upon our ability to generate additional preclinical or clinical data that support the patentability of our proposed claims. We may not be able to generate sufficient additional data on a timely basis, or at all. Moreover, changes in either the patent laws or interpretation of the patent laws in the United States and other countries may diminish the value of our patents or narrow the scope of our patent protection.

Even if our owned and licensed patent applications issue as patents, they may not issue in a form that will provide us with any meaningful protection for our proprietary technology and product candidates, prevent competitors from competing with us, or otherwise provide us with any competitive advantage. Our competitors may be able to circumvent our owned or licensed patents by developing similar or alternative technologies, products or product candidates in a non-infringing manner.

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The issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its inventorship, ownership, scope, validity, or enforceability, and our owned and licensed patents may be challenged in the courts or patent offices in the United States and abroad. Such challenges may result in loss of exclusivity or in patent claims being narrowed, invalidated or held unenforceable, in whole or in part, which could limit our ability to stop others from using or commercializing similar or identical technology, products or product candidates, or limit the duration of the patent protection of our technology and product candidates. Given the amount of time required for the development, testing, and regulatory review of new product candidates, patents protecting such candidates might expire before or shortly after such candidates are commercialized. As a result, our patent portfolio may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours.

If we are not able to obtain patent term extension in the United States under the Hatch-Waxman Act and in foreign countries under similar legislation, thereby potentially extending the term of our marketing exclusivity for our product candidates, our business may be materially harmed.

Depending upon the timing, duration, and specifics of FDA marketing approval of our product candidates, one of the U.S. patents covering each of such product candidates or the use thereof may be eligible for up to five years of patent term extension under the Hatch-Waxman Act. The Hatch-Waxman Act allows a maximum of one patent to be extended per FDA approved product as compensation for the patent term lost during the FDA regulatory review process. A patent term extension cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval and only those claims covering such approved drug product, a method for using it or a method for manufacturing it may be extended. Also, the regulatory review period of an FDA-approved product may not serve as a basis for a patent term extension if the active ingredient of such product was subject to regulatory review and approval in an earlier product approved by the FDA. Patent term extension also may be available in certain foreign countries upon regulatory approval of our product candidates. Nevertheless, we may not be able to seek or be granted patent term extension either in the United States or in any foreign country because of, for example, failing to exercise due diligence during the testing phase or regulatory review process, failing to apply within applicable deadlines, failing to apply prior to expiration of relevant patents, or otherwise failing to satisfy applicable requirements. Moreover, the term of extension, as well as the scope of patent protection during any such extension, afforded by the governmental authority could be less than we request.

If we are unable to obtain patent term extension or restoration, or the term of any such extension is less than we request, the period during which we will have the right to exclusively market our product may be shortened and our competitors may obtain approval of competing products following our patent expiration sooner, and our revenue could be reduced, possibly materially.

It is possible that we will not obtain patent term extension under the Hatch-Waxman Act for a U.S. patent covering our product candidates even where that patent is eligible for patent term extension, or if we obtain such an extension, it may be for a shorter period than we had sought. Further, for our licensed patents, we may not have the right to control prosecution, including filing with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, a petition for patent term extension under the Hatch-Waxman Act. Thus, if one of our licensed patents is eligible for patent term extension under the Hatch-Waxman Act, we may not be able to control whether a petition to obtain a patent term extension is filed, or obtained, from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

We may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents or other intellectual property rights, which could be expensive, time-consuming and unsuccessful.

Competitors and other third parties may infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate our owned and licensed patents, trade secrets, or other intellectual property rights. As a result, to counter infringement, misappropriation or unauthorized use, we may be required to file infringement or misappropriation claims or other intellectual property related proceedings, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Any claims we assert against perceived infringers could provoke these parties to assert counterclaims against us alleging that we infringe their patents or that our asserted patents are invalid. In addition, in a patent infringement or other intellectual property related proceeding, a court may decide that a patent of ours is invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part, construe the patent’s claims narrowly or refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover the technology in question. An adverse result in any litigation proceeding could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated, held unenforceable or interpreted narrowly, and could put any of our patent applications at risk of not yielding an issued patent. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with

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intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information or trade secrets could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation.

We may be subject to a third-party preissuance submission of prior art to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or become involved in other contested proceedings such as opposition, derivation, reexamination, inter partes review, post-grant review, or interference proceedings in the United States or elsewhere, challenging our patent rights or the patent rights of others. An adverse determination in any such submission, proceeding or litigation could reduce the scope of, or invalidate, our patent rights, allow third parties to commercialize our technology or product candidates and compete directly with us, without payment to us, or result in our inability to manufacture or commercialize products without infringing third-party patent rights. In addition, if the breadth or strength of protection provided by our patents and patent applications is threatened, it could dissuade companies from collaborating with us to license, develop or commercialize current or future product candidates.

In the United States, the FDA does not prohibit clinicians from prescribing an approved product for uses that are not described in the product’s labeling. Although use of a product directed by off-label prescriptions may infringe our method-of-treatment patents, the practice is common across medical specialties, particularly in the United States, and such infringement is difficult to detect, prevent, or prosecute and may have negative impacts on our business, operating results and financial condition.

Third parties may initiate legal proceedings alleging that we are infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating their intellectual property rights, the outcome of which would be uncertain and could have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.

Our commercial success depends upon our ability to develop, manufacture, market, and sell KPI-012 and any other product candidate we may develop in the future and to use our proprietary technologies without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property and other proprietary rights of third parties. There is a considerable amount of intellectual property litigation in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. We may become party to, or threatened with, infringement litigation claims regarding our product candidates and technology, including claims from competitors or from non-practicing entities that have no relevant product revenue and against whom our own patent portfolio may have no deterrent effect. Moreover, we may become party to future adversarial proceedings or litigation regarding our patent portfolio or the patents of third parties. Such proceedings could also include contested post-grant proceedings such as oppositions, inter partes review, reexamination, interference, or derivation proceedings before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office or foreign patent offices.

The legal threshold for initiating litigation or contested proceedings is low, so that even lawsuits or proceedings with a low probability of success might be initiated and require significant resources to defend. Litigation and contested proceedings can also be expensive and time-consuming, and our adversaries in these proceedings may have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to prosecuting these legal actions than we can. The risks of being involved in such litigation and proceedings may increase if our product candidates commence commercialization. Third parties may assert infringement claims against us based on existing patents or patents that may be granted in the future. We may not be aware of all such intellectual property rights potentially relating to our product candidates and their uses. Thus, we do not know with certainty that any of our product candidates or our development and commercialization thereof, do not and will not infringe or otherwise violate any third-party’s intellectual property.

If we are found to infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate a third-party’s intellectual property rights, we could be required to obtain a license from such third-party to continue developing, manufacturing, marketing and selling any products, if and when approved, product candidates and technology. However, we may not be able to obtain any required license on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Even if we were able to obtain a license, it could be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors access to the same technologies licensed to us and could require us to make substantial licensing and royalty payments. We could be forced, including by court order, to cease commercializing the infringing technology, products or product candidates. In addition, we could be found liable for monetary damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees, if we are found to have willfully infringed a patent and could be forced to indemnify our customers or collaborators. A finding of infringement could also result in an injunction that prevents us from commercializing our product candidates or forces us to cease some of our business operations, which could materially harm our business. In addition, we may be forced to redesign our product candidates, seek new regulatory approvals and indemnify third parties pursuant to contractual agreements. Claims that we have misappropriated the confidential information or trade secrets of third parties could have a similar negative impact on our business.

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Obtaining and maintaining patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.

Periodic maintenance, renewal and annuity fees on any issued patent must be paid to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and foreign patent agencies in several stages or annually over the lifetime of our owned and licensed patents and patent applications. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and various foreign governmental patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar provisions during the patent application process. In certain circumstances, we may rely on our licensing partners to pay these fees to, or comply with the procedural and documentary rules of, the relevant patent agency. While an inadvertent lapse can in many cases be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules, there are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. Non-compliance events that could result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application include failure to respond to official actions within prescribed time limits, non-payment of fees and failure to properly legalize and submit formal documents. If we or our licensors fail to maintain the patents and patent applications covering our product candidates, it would have a material adverse effect on our business.

KPI-012 is protected by patent rights exclusively licensed from other companies or institutions. If these third parties terminate their agreements with us or fail to maintain or enforce the underlying patents, or we otherwise lose our rights to these patents, our competitive position and our market share in the markets for any of our products, if any when approved, will be harmed.

A substantial portion of our patent portfolio is in-licensed. As such, we are a party to license agreements and certain aspects of our business depend on patents and/or patent applications owned by other companies or institutions. In particular, we hold exclusive licenses for patent families relating to KPI-012. We rely on a license from Stanford University for certain patent rights related to KPI-012. The license agreement between Combangio and Stanford University, or Stanford University License Agreement, imposes specified diligence, milestone payment, royalty and other obligations on us and requires that we meet development timelines, or to exercise diligent or commercially reasonable efforts to develop and commercialize licensed products, in order to maintain the license. Our rights with respect to in-licensed patents and patent applications may be lost if the applicable license agreement expires or is terminated or if we fail to satisfy the obligations under the Stanford University License Agreement. We are likely to enter into additional license agreements to in-license patents and patent applications as part of the development of our business in the future, under which we may not retain control of the preparation, filing, prosecution, maintenance, enforcement and defense of such patents. If we are unable to maintain these patent rights for any reason, our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates could be materially harmed.

Our licensors may not successfully prosecute certain patent applications, the prosecution of which they control, under which we are licensed and on which our business depends. Even if patents issue from these applications, our licensors may fail to maintain these patents, may decide not to pursue litigation against third-party infringers, may fail to prove infringement, or may fail to defend against counterclaims of patent invalidity or unenforceability.

Risks with respect to parties from whom we have obtained intellectual property rights may also arise out of circumstances beyond our control. In spite of our best efforts, our licensors might conclude that we have materially breached our intellectual property agreements and might therefore terminate the intellectual property agreements, thereby removing our ability to market products covered by these intellectual property agreements. If our intellectual property agreements are terminated, or if the underlying patents fail to provide the intended market exclusivity, competitors would have the freedom to seek regulatory approval of, and to market, products similar or identical to ours. Moreover, if our intellectual property agreements are terminated, our former licensors and/or assignors may be able to prevent us from utilizing the technology covered by the licensed or assigned patents and patent applications. This could have a material adverse effect on our competitive business position and our financial condition, results of operations and our business prospects.

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Some intellectual property which we own or have licensed may have been discovered through government funded programs and thus may be subject to federal regulations such as “march-in” rights, certain reporting requirements, and a preference for United States industry. Compliance with such regulations may limit our exclusive rights, subject us to expenditure of resources with respect to reporting requirements, and limit our ability to contract with non-U.S. manufacturers.

Some of the intellectual property rights we own or have licensed have been generated through the use of United States government funding and may therefore be subject to certain federal regulations. For example, certain aspects of KPI-012 were developed using United States government funds. As a result, the United States government may have certain rights to intellectual property embodied in KPI-012 pursuant to the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980. These United States government rights in certain inventions developed under a government-funded program include a non-exclusive, non-transferable, irrevocable worldwide license to use inventions for any governmental purpose. In addition, the United States government has the right to require us to grant exclusive, partially exclusive, or non-exclusive licenses to any of these inventions to a third-party if it determines that: (i) adequate steps have not been taken to commercialize the invention; (ii) government action is necessary to meet public health or safety needs; or (iii) government action is necessary to meet requirements for public use under federal regulations (also referred to as “march-in rights”). The United States government also has the right to take title to these inventions if we fail to disclose the invention to the government and fail to file an application to register the intellectual property within specified time limits. In addition, the United States government may acquire title to these inventions in any country in which a patent application is not filed within specified time limits. Intellectual property generated under a government funded program is also subject to certain reporting requirements, compliance with which may require us to expend substantial resources. In addition, the United States government requires that any products embodying the subject invention or produced through the use of the subject invention be manufactured substantially in the United States. The manufacturing preference requirement can be waived if the owner of the intellectual property can show that reasonable but unsuccessful efforts have been made to grant licenses on similar terms to potential licensees that would be likely to manufacture substantially in the United States or that under the circumstances domestic manufacture is not commercially feasible. This preference for United States manufacturers may limit our ability to contract with non-U.S. product manufacturers for products covered by such intellectual property. Any exercise by the government of any of the foregoing rights could harm our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

If we fail to comply with our obligations in our intellectual property licenses and funding arrangements with third parties, we could lose rights that are important to our business.

Our Stanford University License Agreement, under which we license certain patent rights related to KPI-012, imposes royalty and other financial obligations on us and other substantial performance obligations. We also may enter into additional licensing and funding arrangements with third parties that may impose diligence, development and commercialization timelines and milestone payment, royalty, insurance and other obligations on us. If we fail to comply with our obligations under current or future license and collaboration agreements, our counterparties may have the right to terminate these agreements, in which event we might not be able to develop, manufacture or market any product or product candidate that is covered by these agreements or may face other penalties under the agreements. Such an occurrence could diminish the value of any product or product candidate. Termination of these agreements or reduction or elimination of our rights under these agreements may result in our having to negotiate new or reinstated agreements with less favorable terms, or cause us to lose our rights under these agreements, including our rights to important intellectual property or technology.

In addition, it is possible that Stanford may conclude that we have materially breached the Stanford University License Agreement and might therefore terminate the agreement, thereby removing our ability to market products covered by our license agreement with Stanford. If the Stanford University License Agreement is terminated, or if the underlying patents fail to provide the intended market exclusivity, competitors would have the freedom to seek regulatory approval of, and to market, products similar or identical to ours. Moreover, if our Stanford University License Agreement is terminated, Stanford and/or its assignors may be able to prevent us from utilizing the technology covered by the licensed or assigned patents and patent applications. If we breach the agreement (including by failing to meet our payment obligations) and do not adequately cure such breach, the rights in the technology licensed to us under the Stanford University License Agreement will revert to Stanford at no cost to Stanford. This could have a material adverse effect on our competitive business position, our financial condition, our results of operations and our business prospects.

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In addition, the agreements under which we currently license intellectual property or technology from third parties are complex, and certain provisions in such agreements may be susceptible to multiple interpretations. The resolution of any contract interpretation disagreement that may arise could narrow what we believe to be the scope of our rights to the relevant intellectual property or technology, or increase what we believe to be our financial or other obligations under the relevant agreement, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. Moreover, if disputes over intellectual property that we have licensed prevent or impair our ability to maintain our current licensing arrangements on commercially acceptable terms, we may be unable to successfully develop and commercialize any affected product or product candidate, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions, results of operations, and prospects.

We may not be able to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights throughout the world.

Filing, prosecuting, and defending patents on our product candidates in all countries throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and the laws of foreign countries may not protect our rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in all countries outside the United States, or from selling or importing products made using our inventions in and into the United States or other jurisdictions. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection to develop their own products and, further, may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent protection or licenses, but enforcement is not as strong as that in the United States. These products may compete with our products, and our patents or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing.

Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents, trade secrets, and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to biotechnology products, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents or marketing of competing products in violation of our intellectual property and proprietary rights generally. Proceedings to enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly, could put our patent applications at risk of not issuing, and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate, and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license.

Many countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled to grant licenses to third parties. In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, the patent owner may have limited remedies, which could materially diminish the value of such patent. If we or any of our licensors is forced to grant a license to third parties with respect to any patents relevant to our business, our competitive position may be impaired, and our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may be adversely affected.

We may be subject to claims by third parties asserting that our employees or we have misappropriated their intellectual property, or claiming ownership of what we regard as our own intellectual property.

Many of our and our licensors’ employees and contractors were previously employed at other biotechnology, medical device or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees and contractors do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that these individuals have used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of any such employee’s former employer. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims.

In addition, while it is our policy to require our employees and contractors who may be involved in the development of intellectual property to execute agreements assigning such intellectual property to us, we may be unsuccessful in executing such an agreement with each party who in fact develops intellectual property that we regard as our own. Furthermore, we are unable to control whether our licensors have obtained similar assignment agreements from their own employees and contractors. Our and their assignment agreements may not be self-executing or may be

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breached, and we or our licensors may be forced to bring claims against third parties, or defend claims they may bring against us, to determine the ownership of what we regard as our intellectual property.

If we or our licensors fail in prosecuting or defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive business position and prospects. Such intellectual property rights could be awarded to a third-party, and we could be required to obtain a license from such third-party to commercialize our technology or products, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Even if we are successful in prosecuting or defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.

Intellectual property litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property could cause us to spend substantial resources and distract our personnel from their normal responsibilities.

Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims may cause us to incur significant expenses, and could distract our technical and management personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for development activities or any future sales, marketing or distribution activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to conduct such litigation or proceedings adequately. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources and may also have an advantage in such proceedings due to their more mature and developed intellectual property portfolios. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings could have an adverse effect on our ability to compete in the marketplace.

If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be harmed.

In addition to seeking patents for our technology and our product candidates, we also rely on trade secrets, including unpatented know-how, technology and other proprietary information, to maintain our competitive position. We seek to protect these trade secrets, in part, by entering into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to them, such as our employees, corporate collaborators, outside scientific collaborators, contract manufacturers, consultants, advisors and other third parties. We also enter into confidentiality and invention or patent assignment agreements with our employees and consultants. Despite these efforts, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. Detecting the disclosure or misappropriation of a trade secret and enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, some courts inside and outside the United States are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor, we would have no right to prevent them, or those to whom they communicate it, from using that technology or information to compete with us. If any of our trade secrets were to be disclosed to or independently developed by a competitor, our competitive position would be harmed.

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Risks Related to Regulatory Approval of Our Product Candidates and Other Legal Compliance Matters

If we are not able to obtain required regulatory approvals, we will not be able to commercialize our product candidates, and our ability to generate significant revenue will be materially impaired. The marketing approval process is expensive, time-consuming and uncertain. As a result, we cannot predict when or if we, or any collaborators we may have in the future, will obtain marketing approval to commercialize KPI-012 or any product candidates we may develop in the future.

KPI-012 and any other future product candidate and the activities associated with their development and commercialization, including their design, testing, manufacture, safety, potency, purity, recordkeeping, labeling, storage, approval, advertising, promotion, sale and distribution, are subject to comprehensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory agencies in the United States and by comparable authorities in other countries. Failure to obtain marketing approval for a product candidate will prevent us from commercializing the product candidate.

Other than EYSUVIS and INVELTYS, which we sold to Alcon in July 2022, we have not received approval to market any product candidate from regulatory authorities in any jurisdiction. We may never generate the necessary data or results required to obtain regulatory approval of KPI-012 or any other product candidate we may develop with the market potential sufficient to enable us to achieve profitability. We have only limited experience in submitting and supporting the applications necessary to gain marketing approvals and have relied on, and expect to continue to rely on, third-party consultants and vendors to assist us in this process. Securing marketing approval requires the submission of extensive preclinical and clinical data and supporting information to regulatory authorities for each therapeutic indication to establish a biologic product candidate’s purity, safety and potency. Securing marketing approval also requires the submission of information about the product manufacturing process to, and inspection of manufacturing facilities by, the regulatory authorities. The FDA or other regulatory authorities may determine that KPI-012 or any other product candidate that we develop does not satisfy these standards or has undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that preclude our obtaining marketing approval or prevent or limit commercial use.

The process of obtaining marketing approvals, both in the United States and abroad, is expensive, may take many years, if approval is obtained at all, and can vary substantially based upon a variety of factors, including the type, complexity and novelty of the product candidates involved. Changes in marketing approval policies during the development period, changes in or the enactment of additional statutes or regulations, or changes in regulatory review for each submitted product application, may cause delays in the approval or rejection of an application. Regulatory authorities have substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application or may decide that our data are insufficient for approval and require additional preclinical, clinical or other studies. In addition, varying interpretations of the data obtained from preclinical and clinical testing could delay, limit or prevent marketing approval of a product candidate.

In addition, disruptions at the FDA and other agencies may prolong the time necessary for new biologics to be reviewed and/or approved by necessary government agencies, which would adversely affect our business. The ability of the FDA to review and approve new biologics can be affected by a variety of factors, including government budget and funding levels, ability to hire and retain key personnel and accept the payment of user fees, and statutory, regulatory, and policy changes and other events that may otherwise affect the FDA’s ability to perform routine functions. Average review times at the FDA have fluctuated in recent years. Over the last several years, the U.S. government has shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA, have had to furlough critical employees and stop critical activities. If a prolonged government shutdown occurs, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to disruptions at the FDA and has prolonged the time necessary for certain new biologics to be reviewed and/or approved. The FDA has been working to resume routine surveillance, bioresearch monitoring and pre-approval inspections on a prioritized basis. There can be no assurance that the FDA timely reviews applications. Regulatory authorities outside the U.S. may adopt similar restrictions or other policy measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and may experience delays in their regulatory activities.

If we experience delays in obtaining approval or if we fail to obtain approval of any product candidate that we develop, the commercial prospects for such product candidate may be harmed and our ability to generate revenues will be materially impaired.

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Failure to obtain marketing approval in foreign jurisdictions would prevent our product candidates from being marketed abroad.

In order to market and sell KPI-012 or any other product candidate we may develop in the European Union and many other jurisdictions, we or our potential third-party collaborators, must obtain separate marketing approvals and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements. The approval procedure varies among countries and can involve additional testing. Clinical trials of any product candidate in the United States may not be sufficient to support an application for marketing approval outside the United States.

The time required to obtain approval outside of the United States may differ substantially from that required to obtain FDA approval. The regulatory approval process outside the United States generally includes all of the risks associated with obtaining FDA approval. In addition, in many countries outside the United States, it is required that the product be approved for reimbursement before the product can be sold in that country. We or our potential collaborators may not obtain approvals from regulatory authorities outside the United States on a timely basis, if at all. Approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions, and approval by one regulatory authority outside the United States does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions or by the FDA. However, a failure or delay in obtaining regulatory approval in one country may have a negative effect on the regulatory process in other countries. We may not be able to file for marketing approvals and may not receive necessary approvals to commercialize our products in any market, which could significantly and materially harm our business.

The terms of approvals, ongoing regulations and post-marketing restrictions for our products may limit how we manufacture and market our products, which could materially impair our ability to generate revenue.

Once marketing approval has been granted, an approved product and its manufacturer and marketer are subject to ongoing review and extensive regulation. We, and any potential collaborators we may have in the future, must therefore comply with requirements concerning advertising and promotion for any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval. Promotional communications with respect to biologic products and medical devices are subject to a variety of legal and regulatory restrictions and must be consistent with the information in the product’s approved labeling. Thus, if any of our product candidates receives marketing approval, the accompanying label may limit the approved use of any other product for which we obtain marketing approval, which could limit sales of such product.

The FDA may also impose requirements for costly post-marketing testing and surveillance to monitor the safety or efficacy of the product, including the adoption and implementation of risk evaluation and mitigation strategies. The FDA closely regulates the post-approval marketing and promotion of products to ensure they are marketed only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved labeling and regulatory requirements. The FDA imposes stringent restrictions on manufacturers’ communications regarding off-label use and if we do not restrict the marketing of our products only to their approved indications, we may be subject to enforcement action for off-label marketing. Violations of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and other statutes, including the False Claims Act, relating to the promotion and advertising of prescription products may lead to investigations and/or enforcement actions by the FDA, Department of Justice and state Attorneys General alleging violations of federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws, as well as state consumer protection laws.

In addition, later discovery of previously unknown adverse events or other problems with our products, manufacturers or manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may have various consequences, including:

restrictions on such products, manufacturers or manufacturing processes;
restrictions and warnings in the labeling and marketing of a product;
restrictions on product distribution or use;
requirements to conduct post-marketing clinical trials;
warning or untitled letters;

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withdrawal of the products from the market;
refusal to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications that we submit;
recall of products;
fines, restitution or disgorgement of profits or revenue;
suspension or withdrawal of marketing approvals;
refusal to permit the import or export of our products;
product seizure;
exclusion and debarment from federal healthcare reimbursement programs; or
injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.

Non-compliance with European Union requirements or laws of other countries regarding safety monitoring or pharmacovigilance can also result in significant financial penalties. Similarly, failure to comply with the European Union’s or other countries’ requirements regarding the protection of personal information can lead to significant penalties and sanctions. Further, the marketing and promotion of authorized drugs, including industry-sponsored continuing medical education and advertising directed toward the prescribers of drugs and/or the general public, are strictly regulated in the European Union notably under Directive 2001/83EC, as amended, and are also subject to EU Member State laws. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines is prohibited across the European Union.

In addition, manufacturers of approved products and those manufacturers’ facilities are required to comply with extensive FDA requirements, including ensuring that quality control and manufacturing procedures conform to cGMPs applicable to manufacturers or quality assurance standards applicable to medical device manufacturers, which include requirements relating to quality control and quality assurance as well as the corresponding maintenance of records and documentation and reporting requirements. We, our contract manufacturers, any contract manufacturers we may engage in the future, our future collaborators and their contract manufacturers will also be subject to other regulatory requirements, including submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration and listing requirements, requirements regarding the distribution of samples to clinicians, recordkeeping, and costly post-marketing studies or clinical trials and surveillance to monitor the safety or efficacy of the product such as the requirement to implement a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy.

We may be subject to substantial penalties if we fail to comply with regulatory requirements or if we experience unanticipated problems with our products.

We may not be able to obtain orphan drug exclusivity for one or more of our product candidates, and even if we do, that exclusivity may not prevent the FDA or the European Medicines Agency from approving other competing products. Additionally, if another company with a competing product candidate were to obtain orphan drug exclusivity for its competing product candidate before we do, we may be barred from marketing our product candidate for the same indication as the competing product candidate during the exclusivity period.

Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may designate a product candidate as an orphan drug if it is a drug or biologic intended to treat a rare disease or condition. A similar regulatory scheme governs approval of orphan products by the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, in the European Union. KPI-012 has received orphan drug designation from the FDA for the treatment of PCED.

Generally, if a product candidate with an orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first marketing approval for the indication for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to a period of marketing exclusivity, which precludes the FDA or the EMA from approving another marketing application for the same product for the same therapeutic indication for that time period. The applicable period is seven years in the United States and ten years in the European Union. The exclusivity period in the European Union can be reduced to six years if a product no longer meets

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the criteria for orphan drug designation, in particular if the product is sufficiently profitable so that market exclusivity is no longer justified. If a competing product candidate with an orphan designation for PCED were to obtain regulatory approval before we are able to obtain approval of KPI-012 for PCED, we could be barred from marketing KPI-012 for PCED in the United States during the seven-year orphan exclusivity period, which would have a severe adverse effect on our business.

In order for the FDA to grant orphan drug exclusivity to one of our products, the FDA must find that the product is indicated for the treatment of a condition or disease with a patient population of fewer than 200,000 individuals annually in the United States. The FDA may conclude that the condition or disease for which orphan drug exclusivity is sought does not meet this standard. Even if we obtain orphan drug exclusivity for a product, that exclusivity may not effectively protect the product from competition because different products can be approved for the same condition.

In addition, even after an orphan drug is approved, the FDA can subsequently approve the same product for the same condition if the FDA concludes that the later product is clinically superior in that it is shown to be safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care. Orphan drug exclusivity may also be lost if the FDA or EMA determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantity of the product to meet the needs of the patients with the rare disease or condition.

The FDA Reauthorization Act of 2017, or FDARA, requires that a drug sponsor demonstrate the clinical superiority of an orphan drug that is otherwise the same as a previously approved drug for the same rare disease in order to receive orphan drug exclusivity. FDARA reverses prior precedent holding that the Orphan Drug Act unambiguously requires that the FDA recognize the orphan exclusivity period regardless of a showing of clinical superiority. The FDA may further reevaluate the Orphan Drug Act and its regulations and policies. This may be particularly true in light of a decision from the Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit in September 2021 finding that, for the purpose of determining the scope of exclusivity, the term “same disease or condition” means the designated “rare disease or condition” and could not be interpreted by the FDA to mean the “indication or use.” Thus, the Court of Appeals concluded that orphan drug exclusivity applies to the entire designated disease or condition rather than the “indication or use.” Although there have been legislative proposals to overrule this decision, they have not been enacted into law. On January 23, 2023, FDA announced that, in matters beyond the scope of that court order, the FDA will continue to apply its existing regulations tying orphan-drug exclusivity to the uses or indications for which the orphan drug was approved. We do not know if, when, or how the FDA may change the orphan drug regulations and policies in the future, and it is uncertain how any changes might affect our business. Depending on what changes the FDA may make to its orphan drug regulations and policies, our business could be adversely impacted.

We may seek certain designations for our product candidates, including Breakthrough Therapy, Fast Track and Priority Review designations in the United States, and PRIME Designation in the European Union, but we might not receive such designations, and even if we do, such designations may not lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process.

We may seek certain designations for one or more of our product candidates that could expedite review and approval by the FDA. A Breakthrough Therapy product is defined as a product that is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other products, to treat a serious condition, and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the product may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development. For products that have been designated as Breakthrough Therapies, interaction and communication between the FDA and the sponsor of the trial can help to identify the most efficient path for clinical development while minimizing the number of patients placed in ineffective control regimens.

The FDA may also designate a product for Fast Track review if it is intended, whether alone or in combination with one or more other products, for the treatment of a serious or life threatening disease or condition, and it demonstrates the potential to address unmet medical needs for such a disease or condition. For Fast Track review products, sponsors may have greater interactions with the FDA and the FDA may initiate review of sections of a Fast Track product’s application before the application is complete. This rolling review may be available if the FDA determines, after preliminary evaluation of clinical data submitted by the sponsor, that a Fast Track review product may be effective.

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We may also seek a priority review designation for one or more of our product candidates. If the FDA determines that a product candidate offers major advances in treatment or provides a treatment where no adequate therapy exists, the FDA may designate the product candidate for priority review. A priority review designation means that the goal is for the FDA to review an application for marketing approval in six months, rather than the standard review period of ten months.

These designations are within the discretion of the FDA. Accordingly, even if we believe that one of our product candidates meets the criteria for these designations, the FDA may disagree and instead determine not to make such designation. Further, even if we receive a designation, the receipt of such designation for a product candidate may not result in a faster development or regulatory review or approval process compared to product candidates considered for approval under conventional FDA procedures and does not assure ultimate approval by the FDA. In addition, even if one or more of our product candidates qualifies for these designations, the FDA may later decide that the product candidates no longer meet the conditions for qualification or decide that the time period for FDA review or approval will not be shortened.

In the European Union, we may seek PRIME designation for some of our product candidates in the future. The PRIME program focuses on product candidates that target conditions for which there exists no satisfactory method of treatment in the European Union, or even if such a method exists, the product candidate may offer a major therapeutic advantage over existing treatments. To be accepted for PRIME designation, a product candidate must meet the eligibility criteria in respect of its major public health interest and therapeutic innovation based on information that is capable of substantiating the claims. The benefits of a PRIME designation include the appointment of a rapporteur of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use to provide continued support and help to build knowledge ahead of a marketing authorization application, early dialogue and scientific advice at key development milestones, and the potential to qualify products for accelerated review, meaning reduction in the review time for an opinion on approvability to be issued earlier in the application process. PRIME designation enables an applicant to request parallel EMA scientific advice and health technology assessment advice to facilitate timely market access. Even if we receive PRIME designation for any of our product candidates, the designation may not result in a materially faster development process, review or approval compared to conventional EMA procedures. Further, obtaining PRIME designation does not assure or increase the likelihood of EMA’s grant of a marketing authorization.

If approved, our products regulated as biologics may face competition from biosimilars approved through an abbreviated regulatory pathway.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, or collectively the ACA, includes a subtitle called the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, or BPCIA, which created an abbreviated approval pathway for biologic products that are biosimilar to or interchangeable with an FDA-licensed reference biologic product. Under the BPCIA, an application for a biosimilar product may not be submitted to the FDA until four years following the date that the reference product was first licensed by the FDA. In addition, the approval of a biosimilar product may not be made effective by the FDA until 12 years from the date on which the reference product was first licensed. During this 12-year period of exclusivity, another company may still market a competing version of the reference product if the FDA approves a BLA for the competing product containing the sponsor’s own preclinical data and data from adequate and well-controlled clinical trials to demonstrate the safety, purity, and potency of the other company’s product. The law is complex and is still being interpreted and implemented by the FDA. As a result, its ultimate impact, implementation, and meaning are subject to uncertainty.

To date, we have not had a product candidate approved as a biologic product. We believe that any of our product candidates that may be approved as a biologic product under a BLA should qualify for the 12-year period of exclusivity. However, there is a risk that this exclusivity could be shortened due to congressional action or otherwise, or that the FDA will not consider our products to be reference products for competing products, potentially creating the opportunity for generic competition sooner than anticipated. Other aspects of the BPCIA, some of which may impact the BPCIA exclusivity provisions, have also been the subject of recent litigation. Moreover, the extent to which a biosimilar, once licensed, will be substituted for any one of our reference products in a way that is similar to traditional generic substitution for non-biologic products is not yet clear, and will depend on a number of marketplace and regulatory factors that are still developing. If competitors are able to obtain regulatory approval for biosimilars referencing our products, our products may become subject to competition from such biosimilars, with the attendant competitive pressure and consequences.

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Our relationships with customers and third-party payors may be subject, directly or indirectly, to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse, false claims, transparency, health information privacy and security, and other healthcare laws and regulations, which could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, contractual damages, reputational harm, administrative burdens and diminished profits and future earnings.

Healthcare providers, clinicians and third-party payors in the United States and elsewhere will play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription and use of any product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Our future arrangements with third-party payors and customers may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we market, sell and distribute any products for which we obtain marketing approval. The applicable federal, state and foreign healthcare laws and regulations that may affect our ability to operate include:

the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation of, any good or service, for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program such as Medicare and Medicaid;
federal civil and criminal false claims laws and civil monetary penalty laws, including the federal False Claims Act, which impose criminal and civil penalties, including civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, against individuals or entities for knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the federal government, including the Medicare and Medicaid programs, claims for payment that are false or fraudulent or making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government;
the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which imposes criminal and civil liability for executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or making false statements relating to healthcare matters;
HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, and their respective implementing regulations, which imposes obligations, including mandatory contractual terms, on covered healthcare providers, health plans and healthcare clearinghouses, as well as their business associates, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information;
the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, to report annually to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, information related to payments or transfers of value made to physicians, other healthcare providers and teaching hospitals, as well as information regarding ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members; and
analogous state and foreign laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by non-governmental third-party payors, including private insurers, state and foreign laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers, state and foreign laws that require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to clinicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures, and state and foreign laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, individual imprisonment, integrity obligations, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. Any penalties,

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damages, fines, individual imprisonment, integrity obligations, exclusion from funded healthcare programs, or curtailment or restructuring of our operations could adversely affect our financial results. Our corporate compliance program is designed to ensure that we will develop, market and sell our products and product candidates in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations, but we cannot guarantee that this program will protect us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with such laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions.

Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations may involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, including, without limitation, damages, fines, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. If any of the clinicians or other healthcare providers or entities with whom we do or expect to do business is found to be not in compliance with applicable laws, it may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from participation in government funded healthcare programs.

Existing and future legislation may affect our ability to commercialize our products, if and when approved, and increase the difficulty and cost for us to obtain reimbursement for our products, if and when approved.

In the United States and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes regarding the healthcare system that could affect our ability to profitably sell or commercialize any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval. The pharmaceutical industry has been a particular focus of these efforts and have been significantly affected by legislative initiatives. Current laws, as well as other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in more rigorous coverage criteria and in additional downward pressure on the price that we receive for any FDA approved product.

In the United States, the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, or the Medicare Modernization Act, changed the way Medicare covers and pays for pharmaceutical products. The legislation expanded Medicare coverage for drug purchases by the elderly and introduced a new reimbursement methodology based on average sales prices for clinician administered drugs. In addition, this legislation provided authority for limiting the number of products that will be covered in any therapeutic class. Cost reduction initiatives and other provisions of this legislation could decrease the coverage and price that we receive for any approved products. While the Medicare Modernization Act applies only to benefits for Medicare beneficiaries, private payors often follow Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement rates. Therefore, any reduction in reimbursement that results from the Medicare Modernization Act may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors.

In March 2010, President Obama signed into law the ACA. In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the ACA was enacted. For example, in August 2021, the Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, led to aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year that started in 2013 and, due to subsequent legislative amendments, will stay in effect through 2031. The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, or the CARES Act, which was enacted on March 27, 2020, suspended the 2% Medicare sequester from May 1, 2020 through December 31, 2020, and extended the sequester by one year, through 2030. Pursuant to subsequent legislation, the reductions were suspended and reduced through the end of June 2022, with the full 2% cut resuming thereafter. In addition, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several types of providers and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. These laws may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding and otherwise affect the prices we may obtain for any of our product candidates for which we may obtain regulatory approval or the frequency with which any product candidate is prescribed or used.

We expect that additional healthcare reforms may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, more rigorous coverage criteria, new payment methodologies and additional downward pressure on the price that we receive for any product which receives regulatory approval and/or the level of reimbursement physicians receive for administering any approved product we might bring to market. Reductions in reimbursement levels may negatively impact the prices we receive or the frequency with which our products are prescribed or

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administered. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors.

Since enactment of the ACA, there have been and continue to be numerous legal challenges and Congressional actions to repeal and replace provisions of the law and litigation and legislation over the ACA is likely to continue with unpredictable and uncertain results. For example, with enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, or the 2017 Tax Act, which was signed by President Trump on December 22, 2017, Congress repealed the “individual mandate.” The repeal of this provision, which required most Americans to carry a minimal level of health insurance, became effective in 2019. The Trump Administration also took executive actions to undermine or delay implementation of the ACA, but those were rescinded by the Biden Administration. President Biden issued an executive order which directs federal agencies to reconsider rules and other policies that limit Americans’ access to health care, and consider actions that will protect and strengthen that access. Under this executive order, federal agencies are directed to re-examine: policies that undermine protections for people with pre-existing conditions, including complications related to COVID-19; demonstrations and waivers under Medicaid and the ACA that may reduce coverage or undermine the programs, including work requirements; policies that undermine the Health Insurance Marketplace or other markets for health insurance; policies that make it more difficult to enroll in Medicaid and the ACA; and policies that reduce affordability of coverage or financial assistance, including for dependents.

The costs of prescription pharmaceuticals has also been the subject of considerable discussion in the United States, and members of Congress and the Biden Administration have stated that they will address such costs through new legislative and administrative measures. To date, there have been several recent U.S. congressional inquiries, as well as proposed and enacted state and federal legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to drug pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, reduce the costs of drugs under Medicare and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for products. For example, on July 9, 2021, President Biden signed an executive order, which focuses on, among other things, the price of pharmaceuticals. The executive order directs the Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS, to create a plan to combat “excessive pricing of prescription pharmaceuticals and enhance domestic pharmaceutical supply chains, to reduce the prices paid by the federal government for such pharmaceuticals, and to address the recurrent problem of price gouging.” On September 9, 2021, HHS released its plan to reduce pharmaceutical prices. The key features of that plan are to: (1) make pharmaceutical prices more affordable and equitable for all consumers and throughout the health care system by supporting pharmaceutical price negotiations with manufacturers; (2) improve and promote competition throughout the prescription pharmaceutical industry by supporting market changes that strengthen supply chains, promote biosimilars and generic drugs, and increase transparency; and (3) foster scientific innovation to promote better healthcare and improve health by supporting public and private research and making sure that market incentives promote discovery of valuable and accessible new treatments.

More recently, on August 16, 2022, the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, or IRA, was signed into law by President Biden. The new legislation has implications for Medicare Part D, which is a program available to individuals who are entitled to Medicare Part A or enrolled in Medicare Part B to give them the option of paying a monthly premium for outpatient prescription drug coverage. Among other things, the IRA requires manufacturers of certain drugs to engage in price negotiations with Medicare (beginning in 2026), with prices that can be negotiated subject to a cap; imposes rebates under Medicare Part B and Medicare Part D to penalize price increases that outpace inflation (first due in 2023); and replaces the Part D coverage gap discount program with a new discounting program (beginning in 2025). The IRA permits the HHS to implement many of these provisions through guidance, as opposed to regulation, for the initial years.

Specifically, with respect to price negotiations, Congress authorized Medicare to negotiate lower prices for certain costly single-source drug and biologic products that do not have competing generics or biosimilars and are reimbursed under Medicare Part B and Part D. CMS may negotiate prices for ten high-cost drugs paid for by Medicare Part D starting in 2026, followed by 15 Part D drugs in 2027, 15 Part B or Part D drugs in 2028 and 20 Part B or Part D drugs in 2029 and beyond. This provision applies to drug products that have been approved for at least 9 years and biologics that have been licensed for 13 years, but it does not apply to drugs and biologics that have been approved for a single rare disease or condition. Nonetheless, since CMS may establish a maximum price for these products in price negotiations, we would be at risk of government action if our products are the subject of Medicare price negotiations. Moreover, given the risk that could be the case, these provisions of the IRA may also further heighten the risk that we would not be able to achieve the expected return on our products or full value of our patents protecting our products if prices are set after such products have been on the market for nine years.

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Further, the legislation subjects drug manufacturers to civil monetary penalties and a potential excise tax for failing to comply with the legislation by offering a price that is not equal to or less than the negotiated “maximum fair price” under the law or for taking price increases that exceed inflation. The legislation also requires manufacturers to pay rebates for drugs in Medicare Part D whose price increases exceed inflation. The new law also caps Medicare out-of-pocket drug costs at an estimated $4,000 a year in 2024 and, thereafter beginning in 2025, at 2,000 a year.

At the state level, individual states are increasingly aggressive in passing legislation and implementing regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. In addition, regional health care authorities and individual hospitals are increasingly using bidding procedures to determine what pharmaceutical products and which suppliers will be included in their prescription drug and other health care programs. These measures could reduce the ultimate demand for our products, once approved, or put pressure on our product pricing. We expect that additional state and federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for healthcare products and services, which could result in reduced demand for our product candidates or additional pricing pressures.

If we or any third-party manufacturers we engage or may engage in the future fail to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur significant costs.

We and any third-party manufacturers we engage or may engage in the future are subject to numerous environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing laboratory procedures and the handling, use, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes. From time to time and in the future, our operations may involve the use of hazardous materials, including chemicals and biological materials, and produce hazardous waste products. We generally contract with third parties for the disposal of these materials and wastes. We cannot eliminate the risk of contamination or injury from these materials. In the event of contamination or injury resulting from our use of hazardous materials, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our resources. We also could incur significant costs associated with civil or criminal fines and penalties for failure to comply with such laws and regulations.

Although we maintain general liability insurance as well as workers’ compensation insurance to cover us for costs and expenses we may incur due to injuries to our employees resulting from the use of hazardous materials, this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities.

In addition, we may incur substantial costs in order to comply with current or future environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These current or future laws and regulations may impair our research, development or production efforts. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations also may result in substantial fines, penalties or other sanctions.

Further, with respect to the operations of any future third-party contract manufacturers, it is possible that if they fail to operate in compliance with applicable environmental, health and safety laws and regulations or properly dispose of wastes associated with our products, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, suffer reputational harm or experience a disruption in the manufacture and supply of our product candidates or products.

We are subject to anti-corruption laws, as well as export control laws, customs laws, sanctions laws and other laws governing our operations. If we fail to comply with these laws, we could be subject to civil or criminal penalties, other remedial measures and legal expenses, be precluded from developing manufacturing and selling certain products outside the United States or be required to develop and implement costly compliance programs, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our operations are subject to anti-corruption laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, or Bribery Act, and other anti-corruption laws that apply in countries where we do business and may do business in the future. The FCPA, Bribery Act and these other laws generally prohibit us, our officers, and our employees and intermediaries from bribing, being bribed or making other prohibited payments to government officials or other persons to obtain or retain business or gain some other business advantage. Compliance with the FCPA, in particular, is expensive and difficult, particularly in countries in which corruption is a recognized problem. In addition, the FCPA presents particular challenges in the pharmaceutical industry, because, in many countries, hospitals

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are operated by the government, and doctors and other hospital employees are considered foreign officials. Certain payments to hospitals in connection with clinical trials and other work have been deemed to be improper payments to government officials and have led to FCPA enforcement actions.

We may in the future operate in jurisdictions that pose a high risk of potential FCPA or Bribery Act violations, and we may participate in collaborations and relationships with third parties whose actions could potentially subject us to liability under the FCPA, Bribery Act or local anti-corruption laws. In addition, we cannot predict the nature, scope or effect of future regulatory requirements to which our international operations might be subject or the manner in which existing laws might be administered or interpreted. If we expand our operations outside of the United States, we will need to dedicate additional resources to comply with numerous laws and regulations in each jurisdiction in which we plan to operate.

We are also subject to other laws and regulations governing our international operations, including regulations administered by the governments of the United Kingdom and the United States, and authorities in the European Union, including applicable export control regulations, economic sanctions on countries and persons, customs requirements and currency exchange regulations, collectively referred to as the Trade Control laws. In addition, various laws, regulations and executive orders also restrict the use and dissemination outside of the United States, or the sharing with certain non-U.S. nationals, of information classified for national security purposes, as well as certain products and technical data relating to those products. If we expand our presence outside of the United States, it will require us to dedicate additional resources to comply with these laws, and these laws may preclude us from developing, manufacturing, or selling certain products and product candidates outside of the United States, which could limit our growth potential and increase our development costs.

There is no assurance that we will be completely effective in ensuring our compliance with all applicable anti-corruption laws, including the FCPA, the Bribery Act or other legal requirements, including Trade Control laws. If we are not in compliance with the FCPA, Bribery Act and other anti-corruption laws or Trade Control laws, we may be subject to criminal and civil penalties, disgorgement and other sanctions and remedial measures, and legal expenses, which could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity. The SEC also may suspend or bar issuers from trading securities on U.S. exchanges for violations of the FCPA’s accounting provisions. Any investigation of any potential violations of the FCPA, the Bribery Act, other anti-corruption laws or Trade Control laws by U.S., U.K. or other authorities could also have an adverse impact on our reputation, our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We are subject to stringent privacy laws, information security laws, regulations, policies and contractual obligations related to data privacy and security and changes in such laws, regulations, policies, contractual obligations and failure to comply with such requirements could subject us to significant fines and penalties, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We are subject to data privacy and protection laws and regulations that apply to the collection, transmission, storage and use of personally-identifying information, which among other things, impose certain requirements relating to the privacy, security and transmission of personal information, including comprehensive regulatory systems in the U.S., EU and U.K. The legislative and regulatory landscape for privacy and data protection continues to evolve in jurisdictions worldwide, and there has been an increasing focus on privacy and data protection issues with the potential to affect our business. Failure to comply with any of these laws and regulations could result in enforcement action against us, including fines, imprisonment of company officials and public censure, claims for damages by affected individuals, damage to our reputation and loss of goodwill, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.

There are numerous U.S. federal and state laws and regulations related to the privacy and security of personal information. In particular, regulations promulgated pursuant to HIPAA establish privacy and security standards that limit the use and disclosure of individually identifiable health information, or protected health information, and require the implementation of administrative, physical and technological safeguards to protect the privacy of protected health information and ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of electronic protected health information. Determining whether protected health information has been handled in compliance with applicable privacy standards and our contractual obligations can be complex and may be subject to changing interpretation. These obligations may be applicable to some or all of our business activities now or in the future.

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If we are unable to properly protect the privacy and security of protected health information, we could be found to have breached our contracts. Further, if we fail to comply with applicable privacy laws, including applicable HIPAA privacy and security standards, we could face civil and criminal penalties. HHS enforcement activity can result in financial liability and reputational harm, and responses to such enforcement activity can consume significant internal resources. In addition, state attorneys general are authorized to bring civil actions seeking either injunctions or damages in response to violations that threaten the privacy of state residents. We cannot be sure how these regulations will be interpreted, enforced or applied to our operations. In addition to the risks associated with enforcement activities and potential contractual liabilities, our ongoing efforts to comply with evolving laws and regulations at the federal and state level may be costly and require ongoing modifications to our policies, procedures and systems.

In 2018, California passed into law the California Consumer Privacy Act, or CCPA, which took effect on January 1, 2020 and imposed many requirements on businesses that process the personal information of California residents. Many of the CCPA’s requirements are similar to those found in the General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, described below, including requiring businesses to provide notice to data subjects regarding the information collected about them and how such information is used and shared, and providing data subjects the right to request access to such personal information and, in certain cases, request the erasure of such personal information. The CCPA also affords California residents the right to opt-out of “sales” of their personal information. The CCPA contains significant penalties for companies that violate its requirements. In November 2020, California voters passed a ballot initiative for the California Privacy Rights Act, or the CPRA, which went into effect on January 1, 2023 and significantly expanded the CCPA to incorporate additional GDPR-like provisions including requiring that the use, retention, and sharing of personal information of California residents be reasonably necessary and proportionate to the purposes of collection or processing, granting additional protections for sensitive personal information and requiring greater disclosures related to notice to residents regarding retention of information. The CPRA also created a new enforcement agency – the California Privacy Protection Agency – whose sole responsibility is to enforce the CPRA, which will further increase compliance risk. The provisions in the CPRA may apply to some of our business activities. In addition, other states, including Virginia, Colorado, Utah, and Connecticut already have passed state privacy laws. Virginia’s privacy law also went into effect on January 1, 2023, and the laws in the other three states will go into effect later in the year. Other states will be considering these laws in the future, and Congress has also been debating passing a federal privacy law. These laws may impact our business activities, including our identification of research subjects, relationships with business partners and ultimately the marketing and distribution of our products.

Similar to the laws in the United States, there are significant privacy and data security laws that apply in Europe and other countries. The collection, use, disclosure, transfer, or other processing of personal data, including personal health data, regarding individuals who are located in the European Economic Area, or EEA, and the processing of personal data that takes place in the EEA, is regulated by the GDPR, which went into effect in May 2018 and which imposes obligations on companies that operate in our industry with respect to the processing of personal data and the cross-border transfer of such data. The GDPR imposes onerous accountability obligations requiring data controllers and processors to maintain a record of their data processing and policies. If our or our service providers’ privacy or data security measures fail to comply with the GDPR requirements, we may be subject to litigation, regulatory investigations, enforcement notices requiring us to change the way we use personal data and/or fines of up to 20 million Euros or up to 4% of the total worldwide annual turnover of the preceding financial year, whichever is higher, as well as compensation claims by affected individuals, negative publicity, reputational harm and a potential loss of business and goodwill.

The GDPR places restrictions on the cross-border transfer of personal data from the EU to countries that have not been found to offer adequate data protection legislation, such as the United States. There are ongoing concerns about the ability of companies to transfer personal data from the EU to other countries. In July 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union, or CJEU, invalidated the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield, one of the mechanisms used to legitimize the transfer of personal data from the EEA to the United States. The CJEU decision also drew into question the long-term viability of an alternative means of data transfer, the standard contractual clauses for transfers of personal data from the EEA to the United States. While we were not self-certified under the Privacy Shield, this CJEU decision may lead to increased scrutiny on data transfers from the EEA to the United States generally and increase our costs of compliance with data privacy legislation as well as our costs of negotiating appropriate privacy and security agreements with our vendors and business partners. Additionally, in October 2022, President Biden signed an executive order to implement the EU-U.S. Data Privacy Framework, which would serve as a replacement to the EU-US Privacy Shield. The European Commission initiated the process to adopt an adequacy decision for the EU-US Data Privacy Framework in December 2022. It is unclear if and when the framework will be finalized and whether it will be challenged in court.

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While we continue to address the implications of the recent changes to data privacy regulations, data privacy remains an evolving landscape at both the domestic and international level, with new regulations coming into effect and continued legal challenges, and our efforts to comply with the evolving data protection rules may be unsuccessful. It is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices. We must devote significant resources to understanding and complying with this changing landscape. Failure to comply with laws regarding data protection would expose us to risk of enforcement actions taken by data protection authorities in the EEA and elsewhere and carries with it the potential for significant penalties if we are found to be non-compliant. Similarly, failure to comply with federal and state laws in the United States regarding privacy and security of personal information could expose us to penalties under such laws. Any such failure to comply with data protection and privacy laws could result in government-imposed fines or orders requiring that we change our practices, claims for damages or other liabilities, regulatory investigations and enforcement action, litigation and significant costs for remediation, any of which could adversely affect our business. Even if we are not determined to have violated these laws, government investigations into these issues typically require the expenditure of significant resources and generate negative publicity, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.

We might not be able to utilize a significant portion of our net operating loss carryforwards and research and development tax credit carryforwards.

As of December 31, 2022, we had federal net operating loss, or NOL, carryforwards of $349.4 million, which may be available to offset future federal tax liabilities and expire at various dates beginning in 2030. As of December 31, 2022, we also had state NOL carryforwards of $390.6 million, which may be available to offset future state income tax liabilities and expire at various dates beginning in 2023. As of December 31, 2022, we had no federal and state research and development credit carryforwards. These NOL carryforwards could expire unused and be unavailable to offset our future income tax liabilities.

In general, under Sections 382 and 383 of the Code, the amount of benefits from our NOL and research and development tax credit carryforwards, respectively, may be impaired or limited if we incur an “ownership change,” generally defined as a greater than 50% change (by value) in our equity ownership by certain stockholders, over a three-year period. We previously completed an analysis and determined that an ownership change has materially limited our net operating loss carryforwards and research and development tax credits available to offset future tax liabilities. During December 2022, an additional ownership change occurred as a result of our entry into the securities purchase agreement for the private placement transaction. As a result of the most recent ownership change, the utilization of our net operating loss carryforwards is subject to an annual limitation of $0.2 million. We may be further limited by any changes that may have occurred or may occur subsequent to December 31, 2022. Any such limitations may result in greater tax liabilities than we would incur in the absence of such limitations and increased liabilities could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial position and cash flows. If our ability to use our historical NOL and research and development tax credit carryforwards is materially limited, it would harm our future operating results by effectively increasing our future tax obligations.

There is also a risk that due to regulatory changes, such as suspensions on the use of NOLs, or other unforeseen reasons, our existing NOLs and research and development tax credit carryforwards could expire or otherwise become unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. As described below in “Changes in tax laws or in their implementation or interpretation could adversely affect our business and financial condition,” the 2017 Tax Act, as amended by the CARES Act, includes changes to U.S. federal tax rates and the rules governing NOL carryforwards that may significantly impact our ability to utilize our NOLs to offset taxable income in the future. In addition, state NOLs generated in one state cannot be used to offset income generated in another state. For these reasons, even if we attain profitability, we may be unable to use a material portion of our NOLs and other tax attributes.

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Risks Related to Employee Matters

Our future success depends on our ability to retain key executives and to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel.

We are highly dependent on the research and development, clinical, business development and commercialization expertise of Mark Iwicki, our Chief Executive Officer, Todd Bazemore, our President and Chief Operating Officer, Mary Reumuth, our Chief Financial Officer, Kim Brazzell, Ph.D., our Head of Research and Development and Chief Medical Officer, Darius Kharabi, our Chief Business Officer, and Eric L. Trachtenberg, our General Counsel, Chief Compliance Officer and Corporate Secretary, as well as the other principal members of our management, scientific and clinical teams. Although we have entered into employment agreements with our executive officers, each of them may terminate their employment with us at any time. We do not maintain “key person” insurance for any of our executives or other employees. In addition, we are highly dependent on the employees who joined us in connection with the Combangio Acquisition and their expertise developing biologics.

Recruiting and retaining qualified scientific, clinical, manufacturing, accounting, legal and other personnel will also be critical to our success. The loss of the services of our executive officers or other key employees could impede the achievement of our research, development and commercialization objectives and seriously harm our ability to successfully implement our business strategy. Furthermore, replacing executive officers and key employees may be difficult and may take an extended period of time because of the limited number of individuals in our industry with the breadth of skills and experience required to successfully develop, gain regulatory approval of and commercialize products. Competition to hire from this limited pool is intense, and we may be unable to hire, train, retain or motivate these key personnel on acceptable terms given the competition among numerous pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies for similar personnel. We also experience competition for the hiring of scientific and clinical personnel from universities and research institutions. Our decision to sell our commercial business to Alcon, our determination to cease the development of our preclinical pipeline programs unrelated to our MSC-S platform and to focus our research and development efforts on KPI-012 and our workforce reduction in July 2022 could harm our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel who are critical to our business. In addition, we rely on consultants and advisors, including scientific, clinical and regulatory advisors, to assist us in formulating our research and development and commercialization strategy. Our consultants and advisors may be employed by employers other than us and may have commitments under consulting or advisory contracts with other entities that may limit their availability to us. If we are unable to continue to attract and retain high quality personnel, our ability to successfully develop and commercialize KPI-012 and any other product candidate we may develop in the future will be harmed.

Our internal computer systems, or those of our vendors, contractors or consultants, may fail or suffer security breaches, which could result in a material disruption of our product development programs.

Despite the implementation of security measures, our internal computer systems and those of our current and any future vendors, contractors or consultants, including any collaborator, are vulnerable to damage from cyber-attacks, computer viruses, worms and other destructive or disruptive software, unauthorized access, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures. Cyber incidents or attacks could include the deployment of harmful malware, ransomware, denial-of-service attacks, unauthorized access to or deletion of files, social engineering and other means to affect service reliability and threaten the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information. Cyber incidents also could include phishing attempts or e-mail fraud to cause payments or information to be transmitted to an unintended recipient. System failures, accidents, cyberattacks or security breaches could cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our development programs and our business operations, whether due to a loss of our trade secrets or other proprietary information or other similar disruptions, in addition to possibly requiring substantial expenditures of resources to remedy. The loss of clinical trial data from completed or future clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss of, or damage to, our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential, personal or proprietary information, we could incur liability, including civil fines and penalties under the General Data Protection Regulation (EU) 2016/679, HIPAA and other relevant state and federal privacy laws in the United States and abroad, our competitive position could be harmed and the further development and commercialization of our product candidates could be delayed. In addition, we may not have adequate insurance coverage to provide compensation for any losses associated with such events.

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While we have not experienced any material losses relating to cyber-attacks, we have been the subject of a successful phishing attempt. We could be subject to risks caused by misappropriation, misuse, leakage, falsification or intentional or accidental release or loss of information maintained in the information systems and networks of our company, including personal information of our employees. In addition, outside parties may attempt to penetrate our systems or those of our vendors, contractors or consultants or fraudulently induce our employees or employees of our vendors, contractors or consultants to disclose sensitive information in order to gain access to our data. Like other companies, we may experience threats to our data and systems, including malicious codes and viruses, and other cyber-attacks. The number and complexity of these threats continue to increase over time. If a material breach of our security or that of our vendors, contractors or consultants occurs, the market perception of the effectiveness of our security measures could be harmed, we could lose business and our reputation and credibility could be damaged. We could be required to expend significant amounts of money and other resources to repair or replace information systems or networks. Although we develop and maintain systems and controls designed to prevent these events from occurring, and we have a process to identify and mitigate threats, the development and maintenance of these systems, controls and processes is costly and requires ongoing monitoring and updating as technologies change and efforts to overcome security measures become more sophisticated. Moreover, despite our efforts, the possibility of these events occurring cannot be eliminated entirely.

A partially or fully remote workplace could negatively impact our business.

We terminated our lease for office and laboratory space at our former corporate headquarters in Watertown, Massachusetts, effective January 11, 2022. While we have retained a nominal amount of office space on a short-term basis to conduct in-person meetings from time-to-time in Arlington, Massachusetts and acquired a sublease for a nominal amount of office and laboratory space in Menlo Park, California in connection with our acquisition of Combangio, the vast majority of our employees no longer have individual offices. As a result, our management team and the vast majority of our employees will work remotely and without dedicated office space, until such time as we determine to obtain a new operating lease. By migrating to a remote workforce, our employees are accessing our servers remotely through home or other networks to perform their job responsibilities, which may be less secure. The risk of cyber incidents or other privacy or data security incidents may be heightened as a result of our remote work environment. Remote working arrangements could also impact employee productivity and morale, impede employee training, strain our technology resources and introduce operational risks, all of which could negatively impact our business. Furthermore, our transition to a largely remote workplace will increase our reliance on third parties to conduct a significant portion of our research and development activities. We have limited ability to control the amount or timing of resources that any such third party will devote to our research and development activities, and such third parties may terminate their engagements with us at any time. We also expect to have to negotiate budgets and contracts with such third parties, and we may not be able to do so on favorable terms, which may result in delays to our development timelines and increased costs.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

Provisions in our corporate charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of our company, which may be beneficial to our stockholders, more difficult and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management.

Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws may discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition or other change in control of our company that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which you might otherwise receive a premium for your shares. These provisions could also limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock, thereby depressing the market price of our common stock. In addition, because our board of directors are responsible for appointing the members of our management team, these provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors. Among other things, these provisions:

provide for a classified board of directors such that only one of three classes of directors is elected each year;
allow the authorized number of our directors to be changed only by resolution of our board of directors;

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limit the manner in which stockholders can remove directors from our board of directors;
provide for advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals that can be acted on at stockholder meetings and nominations to our board of directors;
require that stockholder actions must be effected at a duly called stockholder meeting and prohibit actions by our stockholders by written consent;
limit who may call stockholder meetings;
authorize our board of directors to issue preferred stock without stockholder approval, which could be used to institute a “poison pill” that would work to dilute the stock ownership of a potential hostile acquirer, effectively preventing acquisitions that have not been approved by our board of directors; and
require the approval of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all our stockholders would be entitled to cast to amend or repeal specified provisions of our certificate of incorporation or bylaws.

Moreover, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits a person who owns in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock from merging or combining with us for a period of three-years after the date of the transaction in which the person acquired in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock, unless the merger or combination is approved in a prescribed manner.

Our October 2022 reverse stock split may decrease the liquidity of the shares of our common stock.

The liquidity of the shares of our common stock may be affected adversely by the 1-for-50 reverse stock split we effected in October 2022 given the reduced number of shares that are outstanding following the reverse stock split, which may lead to reduced trading and a smaller number of market makers for our common stock, particularly if the price per share of our common stock is not sustained. In addition, the reverse stock split has increased the number of stockholders who own “odd lots” of less than 100 shares of our common stock, A purchase or sale of less than 100 shares of common stock may result in incrementally higher trading costs through certain brokers, particularly “full service” brokers. Therefore, those stockholders who own fewer than 100 shares of our common stock following the reverse stock split may be required to pay higher transaction costs if they sell their common stock.

The price of our common stock is volatile and fluctuates substantially, which could result in substantial losses for purchasers of our common stock.

Our stock price is volatile and fluctuates substantially. The stock market in general and the market for smaller biopharmaceutical companies in particular have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, you may not be able to sell your common stock at or above the price you paid for such common stock. The market price for our common stock may be influenced by many factors, including:

the recent sale of our commercial business to Alcon;
our strategic decision to focus our research and development efforts on our MSC-S platform, including KPI-012;
results of preclinical studies and clinical trials of KPI-012 or any other product candidates we may develop;
our ability to receive marketing approval for and to successfully commercialize KPI-012 or any other product candidate we may develop;
results of clinical trials of product candidates of our competitors;

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changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems;
the success of competitive products or technologies;
regulatory or legal developments in the United States and other countries;
developments or disputes concerning patent applications, issued patents or other proprietary rights;
the recruitment or departure of key scientific, commercial or management personnel, including as a result of our workforce reduction in July 2022;
the level of expenses related to the development of KPI-012 and any other product candidate we develop;
the results of our efforts to discover, develop, acquire or in-license additional products, product candidates or technologies for the treatment of diseases or conditions, the costs of commercializing any such products and the costs of development of any such product candidates or technologies;
actual or anticipated changes in estimates as to financial results, development timelines or recommendations by securities analysts;
variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;
market conditions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors;
the societal and economic impact of public health epidemics, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic;
general economic, industry and market conditions; and
the other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section.

In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class-action litigation has often been instituted against that company. We also may face securities class-action litigation if we cannot obtain regulatory approval for or fail to successfully commercialize KPI-012 or any other product candidate we develop. Such litigation, if instituted against us, could cause us to incur substantial costs to defend such claims and divert management’s attention and resources.

Sale of a substantial number of shares of our common stock could cause the market price of our common stock to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our common stock. As of March 2, 2023, we had outstanding 2,025,495 shares of common stock.

Shares of our common stock may be freely sold in the public market at any time to the extent permitted by Rules 144 and 701 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, or to the extent such shares have already been registered under the Securities Act and are held by non-affiliates of ours. If our stockholders sell, or indicate an intention to sell, substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, the trading price of our common stock could decline. In addition, we have filed or intend to file registration statements registering all shares of common stock that we may issue under our equity compensation plans or pursuant to equity awards made to newly hired employees outside of equity compensation plans. These shares can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to volume limitations applicable to affiliates.

In December 2022, we sold to certain institutional investors shares of our common stock and shares of our Series E Convertible Non-Redeemable Preferred Stock in a private placement priced at the market under Nasdaq rules for gross proceeds of approximately $31.0 million. While the securities issued in the private placement and the shares of common

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stock issued to former Combangio equityholders will be restricted as a result of securities laws, following expiration of applicable holding periods, these shares will be able to be freely sold in the public market, subject to any requirements and restrictions, including any applicable volume limitations, imposed by Rule 144 under the Securities Act.

Moreover, we have entered into a registration rights agreement with the purchasers in the private placement entitling them to certain resale registration rights with respect to the 76,813 shares of common stock issued in the private placement and the 5,314,400 shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of the Series E Convertible Non-Redeemable Preferred Stock.

The sale or resale of these shares in the public market, or the market’s expectation of such sales, may result in an immediate and substantial decline in our stock price. Such a decline will adversely affect our investors and also might make it difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate.

Our existing stockholders will experience dilution upon any future conversion of the outstanding shares of our Series E Convertible Non-Redeemable Preferred Stock into shares of our common stock.

Each outstanding share of Series E Convertible Non-Redeemable Preferred Stock is initially convertible into 100 shares of our common stock at any time at the option of the holder, subject to certain beneficial ownership limitations. Our existing stockholders will experience dilution upon any future conversion of the outstanding shares of our Series E Convertible Non-Redeemable Preferred Stock into shares of our common stock.

Investors in our December 2022 private placement may have the ability to exercise significant influence over certain of our business decisions.

Pursuant to the terms of the securities purchase agreement for the private placement transaction, investors in the private placement transaction have consent rights over certain significant matters of the Company’s business. Specifically, we have agreed that we will not, without the prior approval of the requisite investors (1) issue or authorize the issuance of any equity security that is senior or pari passu to the Series E Convertible Non-Redeemable Preferred Stock with respect to liquidation preference, (2) incur any additional indebtedness for borrowed money in excess of $1,000,000, in the aggregate, outside the ordinary course of business, subject to specified exceptions, including the refinancing of our existing indebtedness or (3) pay or declare any dividend or make any distribution on, any of our shares of capital stock, subject to specified exceptions. We have also granted the investors in our private placement the right to have our board of directors nominate and recommend for election by the stockholders up to three investor designees to our board of directors, subject to certain requirements and exceptions. In addition, such investors have certain rights to participate in our future equity offerings, which rights are more fully described in Item 1, “Business” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. As a result, these stockholders, may have the ability to exercise significant influence over certain matters affecting our business.

If we fail to comply with the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq, our common stock may be delisted and the price of our common stock and our ability to access the capital markets could be negatively impacted. If our common stock is delisted from Nasdaq, we will be in default under our Loan Agreement.

Our common stock is currently listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market. We must satisfy Nasdaq’s continued listing requirements, including, among other things, a minimum closing bid price of $1.00 per share and a minimum market value of listed securities, or risk delisting, which would have a material adverse effect on our business. A delisting of our common stock from Nasdaq could materially reduce the liquidity of our common stock and result in a corresponding material reduction in the price of our common stock. In addition, delisting could harm our ability to raise capital through alternative financing sources on terms acceptable to us, or at all, and may result in the potential loss of confidence by investors and employees and fewer business development opportunities. In addition, any potential delisting of our common stock from Nasdaq would also make it more difficult for our stockholders to sell their shares in the public market.

During 2022, we received multiple deficiency letters from Nasdaq notifying us of our noncompliance with various listing standards for continued inclusion on The Nasdaq Global Select Market. On each of March 2, 2022 and May 24, 2022, we received a deficiency letter from Nasdaq notifying us that, for 30 consecutive business days, the bid price of our common stock had closed below the $1.00 per share minimum bid price requirement for continued inclusion on The Nasdaq Global Select Market pursuant to Nasdaq Listing Rule 5450(a)(1), or the Bid Price Requirement. We were provided a period of 180 calendar days to regain compliance with the Bid Price Requirement, and in each case, we

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regained compliance within the cure period, including in the second instance by implementing a reverse stock split of our common stock.

On July 6, 2022, we received another deficiency letter from Nasdaq notifying us that we were not in compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5450(b)(2)(A), or the Minimum MVLS Requirement, for continued listing on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, as the market value of our common stock was less than $50,000,000 for the previous 30 consecutive business days. Nasdaq also noted that we were not in compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5450(b)(1)(A), as our stockholders’ equity was less than $10,000,000 and Nasdaq Listing Rule 5450(b)(3)(A), as our total assets and total revenue for the most recently completed fiscal year or for two of the three most recently completed fiscal years were less than $50,000,000. A company that has its primary equity security listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market must satisfy at least one of the standards in Nasdaq Listing Rule 5450(b).

On December 5, 2022, we received another deficiency letter from Nasdaq notifying us that we were not in compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5450(b)(2)(C), or the Minimum MVPHS Requirement, for continued listing on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, as the market value of our publicly held shares was less than $15,000,000 for each of the previous 30 consecutive business days.

In accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3), we were provided un