Mr. Koven has served as a member of our board of directors since September 2017 and as our Lead Independent Director since December 2018. Mr. Koven was, until his retirement in January 2019, the President and Chief Business Officer of Aralez Pharmaceuticals Inc., or Aralez, a public specialty pharmaceutical company, and served in that role with the company’s predecessor, Pozen Inc., commencing in June 2015. Prior to joining Pozen, Mr. Koven served as Executive Vice President, Chief Administrative Officer and General Counsel of Auxilium Pharmaceuticals Inc., a public specialty biopharmaceutical company, from February 2012 until January 2015, when it was acquired by Endo International plc. Mr. Koven served as President and Chief Administrative Officer and a member of the board of directors of Neurologix, Inc., a company focused on the development of multiple innovative gene therapy development programs, from September 2011 to November 2011. Before Neurologix, Mr. Koven served as Executive Vice President and Chief Administrative and Legal Officer of Inspire Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a public specialty pharmaceutical company, from July 2010 until May 2011 when it was acquired by Merck & Co., Inc. Previously, Mr. Koven served as Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of Sepracor Inc. (now Sunovion), a public specialty pharmaceutical company, from March 2007 until February 2010 when it was acquired by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co., Ltd. Prior to joining Sepracor, Mr. Koven served as Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of Kos Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a public specialty pharmaceutical company, from August 2003 until its acquisition by Abbott Laboratories (now AbbVie) in December 2006. Mr. Koven began his career in the pharmaceutical industry first as an Assistant General Counsel and then as Associate General Counsel at Warner-Lambert Company from 1993 to 2000, followed by his role as Senior Vice President and General Counsel at Lavipharm Corporation from 2000 to 2003. From 1986 to 1992 he was a corporate associate at Cahill, Gordon & Reindel in New York. From 1992 to 1993 he served as Counsel, Corporate and Investment Division, at The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the U.S. Mr. Koven holds a Master of Laws (LL.M.) Degree from Columbia University School of Law and a Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) Degree and Bachelor of Arts Degree in Political Science from Dalhousie University.